Asian Journal of Counselling



懲罰以外

2002.第9卷第1及2期(Vol. 9 Nos. 1 & 2).pp. 69–81
 

懲罰以外

Punishment and Beyond

蕭寧波(Ling-Po SHIU)

摘要

懲罰常常用來壓制行為,但它卻並非常常有效,為甚麼呢?本文回顧行為心理學對懲罰的研究,總結出一些使懲罰能有效地壓制行為的方法,並指出在實際生活裏,基於人道和法律的考慮,往往不能依照這些方法來執行懲罰,使得未能單靠懲罰而收效。本文進而指出,應該把改造行為看作調節行為;在這個觀點下,不應單獨使用懲罰來壓制行為,而應該同時使用其他方法建立另一種行為,也就是要雙管齊下,才能收到效果。

Abstract

Although punishment is often used to suppress behavior, it does not always work. Why? Behavioral studies of punishment have identified some ways to make punishment effective. However, in real life, where humanistic and legal concerns are important, punishment often cannot be implemented in the most effective way. Hence, punishment, when implemented alone, often does not work. This article points out that behavioral modification should be reconsidered as behavior regulation. In this perspective, punishment should not be used singly to suppress behavior. Instead, it should be used together with other means to establish a different behavior. In other words, suppression and establishment of behavior should be carried out in parallel.