Asian Journal of Counselling



先秦儒、道、醫思想中的精神健康觀念

1999.第6卷第1期(Vol. 6 No. 1).pp. 35–55
 

先秦儒、道、醫思想中的精神健康觀念

Confucian, Taoistic and Medical Perspectives on Mental Health in the Pre-Chin' Period

葉錦成(Kam-Shing YIP)

摘要

中國傳統文化博大精深,與西方文化有頗不相同的地方,精神健康觀念也是一樣,現代西方的精神健康觀側重個人自我價值觀、社會功能和人際關係各方面的潛能發展。而中國傳統文化不少是源於先秦諸子的學說,其中儒家的孔孟、道家的老莊、醫學典藉《黃帝內經》都對中國人的精神健康概念有深遠的影響。他們的學說在有關精神健康的思想是主張和諧,個體應該克己以滿足團體,如家庭、國家的要求,著重名分和天人合一的調和。這些觀念對精神健康實務有頗多啟示,專業人員應該充份掌握這些民族文化的特徵,在實務上加以適應和運用。

Abstract

Traditional Chinese culture, to certain extent, is quite different from modern western culture, especially in the perception of mental health of individuals. Modern western concepts of mental health focus on the sense of self-satisfaction, individual's social functioning and interpersonal relationship among individuals in the society. Traditional Chinese culture, in which most of them are founded on the different school of thoughts in the Pre-Chin' period stress more on collective harmony, self discipline and control of individual's needs and desire to fulfill the requirement of the family, society and the country. In this paper, the writer tries to analyse related mental health concepts described in those classical texts like the Four Books of the Confucians, Lao Tsu's and Chuang Tsu's writings in Taoism, and the Yellow Emperor Internal Classics in Chinese medicine. All these are important classics in the Pre-Chin?period which have a strong impact on later dynasties. Their implications on the counselling with Chinese clients are also discussed.