2005．第33卷第12期（Vol. 33 Nos. 12）．pp. 207220
Teachers’ Perceptions on Project Learning Implementation in Shanghai and Hong Kong: A Comparative Study
湯才偉、朱嘉穎（Choi-Wai TONG & Ka-Wing CHU）
每當教育成為社會關心的問題，有關政府就不得不對教育提出改善的構想。這些構想也就成為由上而下的教育改革措施，而這些措施不少是屬於課堂教學上的新要求。要想這些要求產生預期的效果，就必須有教師的配合。但在實際的改革過程中，教師在教學技巧或觀念的層面上，往往都不易轉變過來。上海的研究性學習和香港的專題研習在學校的推行就是一個很好的例證。本文擇取兩地教師在學校實施研究性學習／專題研習時所遇到的困難為入手點，透過一個小規模的兩地教師個案比較研究，嘗試從教師的知識、技能和信念等因素來分析教師在專業發展（professional development）過程中所面對的困難，並從而解釋某些改革的推行措施失效的原因。最後，本文亦提出大學如何可以在改革中為社會、學校、教師擔當支援改變的角色（change agent），令改革構想得以有效落實。
Whenever education becomes an issue that arouses public concern, the government involved will have to put forward some ideas to improve education. Such ideas will then develop into top-down education reform measures. A number of these measures pertain to new demands in classroom teaching. For such demands to achieve any expected results, it is essential to have coordination from teachers. However, when such measures are put into practice, teachers often find it difficult to make changes in terms of skills or perceptions about teaching. In Shanghai and Hong Kong, implementing project learning in schools illuminates this very well. In this study, difficulties encountered by teachers of the two cities in carrying out project learning were selected as an entry point. Then, using a small-scale comparative case study of the teachers in these two cities, attempts were made to analyze difficulties encountered by teachers in terms of professional development, taking into account factors such as teachers’ knowledge, skills, and beliefs. Through these attempts, reasons for lacking effects for certain implemented reform measures were explained. Finally, suggestions were made on how university can take the role of a change agent in supporting the society, schools, and teachers during the reform, such that the reform ideas can be effectively implemented.