Education Journal



大眾化、管理主義和市場化:香港的大學質素評鑑經驗

2002.第30卷第1期(Vol. 30 No. 1).pp. 79–104

 

大眾化、管理主義和市場化:香港的大學質素評鑑經驗

Massification, Managerialism and Marketization: Quality Assurance of Higher Education in Hong Kong

李曉康(Michael H. LEE)

摘要

大學教育體制朝向大眾化(massification)的方向發展,打破昔日精英教育的傳統。大眾化對社會和大學教育界均帶來深遠影響,使社會大眾和政府都擔心大學教育質素會因為學生人口持續上升而下降。至於大學的意義和功能如何在全球化過程與後現代社會中定位,也是值得關注的問題。大學教育的目的不再純粹是為社會提供學術與文化服務,亦需要回應勞動與商品市場對大學教育的需求,即受到「市場化」(marketization)趨勢的影響。除了教育質素備受關注之外,大學要符合向公眾問責(accountability)的原則,加強有效調配和運用資源的能力,並提高管理效能。在各地政府積極推行公營部門及服務改革的同時,大學教育的發展也無可避免受到這股改革浪潮影響。管理主義(managerialism)或「新公共管理」(New Public Management)的概念,便在這種背景下開始影響大學教育的發展。本文旨在探討大眾化、管理主義及市場化趨勢對香港的大學教育系統的影響,回顧大學質素評鑑機制的發展,並分析評鑑制度對大學發展及學術界的影響。

Abstract

In recent years, the massification of university education represents a departure from an elite system in the past. There have been widespread concerns about the quality of teaching and learning, research, and university graduates in Hong Kong. Instead of being pure cultural and academic institutions, universities are increasingly treated like public service institutions that are under the great influence of marketization. Concerns about accountability, effective resource allocation prevail together with the notion of managerial efficiency. The recent development of university education is not immune from the tidal wave of public sector reform under the strong influence of the ideology of managerialism or the notion of New Public Management (NPM). This article discussed how managerialism and marketization affects university education, reviewed the development of quality assessment system of university education in Hong Kong, and analyzed the impacts of all the above trends on the prospects of universities and the academic profession.