2001．第29卷第1期（Vol. 29 No. 1）．pp. 121135
Real Computational Skills of Preschool Children in Hong Kong
成子娟、陳鉗笙、劉李婉玲、伍瑞顏、胡婉珊 （Zijuan CHENG, Kim-Sang CHAN, Yuen-Ling LI, Sui-Ngan NG, & Yuen-Shan WOO）
先前研究表明，香港兒童做加減法紙筆運算的成績，已成為眾多家長和學前機構衡量兒童發展的指標之一。兒童做加減法紙筆運算的真實能力如何？本研究抽取出 117 名即將進入小學的 56 歲兒童進行紙筆測試，並對其中部分被試的測試成績，進行更加詳盡的分析。結果表明，這些兒童的主要計算策略，是依靠手指數數；其主要的錯誤類型有：加減法不分，不能使用正確的計算規則，不理解多位數和位置值的意義，也不理解十進制規則，數數錯誤等。依靠手指數數計算加減法，這與國外同齡兒童的發展水平是一致的。而錯誤類型則表明，被試還仍然停留在一位數加減一位數的水平上，實際上並不理解多位數加減法的最基本知識。而老師和家長常常高估了兒童的計算能力。
Research shows that parents and preschools in Hong Kong have used children's paper-and-pencil performance in additions and substractions as an important indicator of their development. But how good are children's real abilities in these addition and subtraction computations? In this study, 117 pre-primary school children were tested with paper-and-pencil tests. Further detailed analyses on some of these children's performance were conducted. Results showed that most children relied on finger counting in their computations. Their major error types included: undifferentiation of addition from subtraction, inability to use the appropriate calculation rules, misunderstanding of multiple-digit numbers and place value, misunderstanding of denary system, counting errors, etc. The reliance on finger counting is parallel to the development of similar age children in other countries. The error types show that Hong Kong children are remaining at a competence level of addition and subtraction between two single-digit numbers. Actually they do not understand the basic principles in the computations involving multiple-digit numbers. Teachers and parents in Hong Kong have usually overestimated children's computational ability.