Education Journal



學校危機的理念和管理:多元觀點的分析

1997.第25卷第1期(Vol. 25 No. 1).pp. 1–23

 

學校危機的理念和管理:多元觀點的分析

The Conception and Management of School Crisis: Multiple Perspectives

鄭燕祥、伍國雄(Yin-Cheong CHENG & Kwok-Hung NG)

摘要

發生於學校內、外環境的意外事故,直接或間接的威脅到學校的發展。危機為學校帶來可見及不可見的種種損害,往往將學校的處境推向一個難於理解及控制的局面。為免這種災難性的局面發生,有關人士日益重視學校危機的理解和管理;不過,有深度的研討仍屬不多,一般多只限於危機個案的描述。

本文探討學校危機的特徵,指出其不穩定性及潛存性;究其成因,可分為物理、情境、道德責任及規範等四種;其所引致的後果,除帶來學校內人身、物質、責任、聲譽及教育等「客觀性損害」外,更具有「主觀性損害」的效應。不同的危機情景,相應的管理內容及方法也會不一樣。

本文嘗試探討學校危機管理的涵義、原則及實踐方法,提出強化學校的不同功能有助預防及控制危機。筆者就學校危機的發展模式,提出一些重要的通則,嘗試整理出包括預防、控制及善後處理的管理措施。以多元的觀點去理解學校危機,應有助加深我們對不同類別危機的認識,希望對學校管理和發展,作出一點貢獻。

Abstract

Responding to the emerging need for comprehensive understanding of the nature and impacts of different types of crises happening in schools, this paper aims to provide a framework of multiple perspectives to analyse and understand the characteristics of school crisis and propose different strategies and procedures to manage it. The potential causes and consequences of school crises are classified and analysed in order to provide a basic understanding of crisis issues in schools. Mainly based on the different paradigms of management, five perspectives including the structural perspective, the human relation perspective, the political perspective, the cultural perspective, and the learning perspective are proposed to be used to understand, conceptualize and practise school crisis management. The theoretical framework and strategies proposed in this paper should be helpful to school practitioners in practice and academics in research.