1995．第23卷第2期（Vol. 23 No. 2）．pp. 73104
Implications and Problems of Constructivism for Instructional Design
Lai-Chong LAW & Ka-Ming WONG（羅麗粧、黃家鳴）
While one of the primary aims of expert-novice comparison studies is to draw instructional implications for educating learners to acquire the expertise, it is argued that this process of applying empirical findings to instructional practice is problematic. The issue can be traced back to the learning theories which are inextricably related to instructional design. Grounded upon behaviourism and cognitivism, traditoinal instructional approaches are suspected of breeding inert knowledge. In their place, constructivism, which actually spans a continuum of theoretical positions, has instigated significant reconceptualizations of instructional design and curriculum planning. Its basic asumptions are that knowledge is actively constructed by knowers and that learning is most effective when situated in some authentic task contexts. Nonetheless, apart from an apparent incompatibility with the basic philosophy of traditional teaching and learning, other immediate challenges particularly presented to constructivist instructional approaches include the problems of evaluation, boundary conditons, effects of media on learning, and teacher training.