Abstracts of Papers and Symposia
A1-1, English, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 501
A Study on the Introduction of Taiwan’s Vocational High School Evaluation into Accreditation System
This paper aims to explore the feasibility of the introduction of Taiwan’s vocational high school evaluation into accreditation system. Literature analysis method is used to explore the connotation of the accreditation system, and then comparative analysis is used to present the accreditation system and the current Taiwan’s vocational-high-school evaluation. By doing so, we wish to figure out the differences between these two evaluations and finally analyse the feasibility of the possible measures and expected benefits.
Based on the literary analysis, when a vocational-high-school evaluation is introduced into the accreditation system, the dominance of the whole evaluation mode will be transferred from the Ministry of Education to the school itself. Compared to the previous evaluation mode, the schools in Taiwan are forced to do so and then do all just for the evaluation’s sake only. The main significance of the introduction of the accreditation system is that it is hoped that the evaluated unit can be self-improved. A school must first understand itself and all kinds of information, such as school characteristics, resources, and attributes, etc., and then tailor its appropriate evaluation indicators in the face of large-scale future in order to find out its problems, improve them and further raise its competitiveness through evaluation. Besides, during the introduction of the accreditation system, it is necessary to consider whether each school is applicable or not. For the current implementation of the technical colleges, the accreditation system can be available to each type of school evaluation, but for the vocational high schools in Taiwan, it still needs to be assessed before implementation.
A1-2, English, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 501
“Education Is a Game of Wasting Time”: Student Views on the Education System and Academic Stress in Hong Kong
Academic stress in Asian societies is generally regarded as the result of demanding examinations. Hong Kong is an Asian society characterized as having high academic stress. As such, this study aims to investigate the problems in the education system and how these problems cause academic stress in Hong Kong. Using the photovoice method, the study invites 15 undergraduate students from a private community college in Hong Kong to take and discuss photographs regarding their lived experience and feelings about learning. Thematic analysis is applied to generate themes from the photovoice data. The results suggest that academic stress is related to the internal contradictions of the education system; that is, the system claims to value all-round and whole-person education but subordinates it to examination results. Thus, the results suggest that the government should solve this internal contradiction, in addition to minimizing the role of examinations, to decrease academic stress in Hong Kong.
A1-3, English, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 501
Factors That Affect In-service Teachers’ Learning on Online Distance In-service Teacher Training: Learning Approaches, Learning Outcomes
Continuing education was compulsory for all in-service teachers both in primary schools and secondary schools in mainland China. Online distance in-service teacher training has become a mainstream form of continuing education. This study wanted to measure the effectiveness of online distance training by learning process and learning outcomes. Furthermore, factors that affect learning process and learning outcomes needed to be studied in order to improve the effectiveness of the online distance in-service teacher training. This study framed the research aims within the Biggs’ (2001) 3P model. Quantitative research of survey was applied in this study. This study found that teachers in the online training adopted both deep and surface learning approaches. In terms of how factors affect learning approaches, teaching context predicted deep approach to learning strongly and positively. Workload and only grade-as-feedback, and learning choice independence were positive predictors of surface approach to learning. As for how factors affect learning outcomes, this study showed that deep approach to learning, online learning system’s ease of use and teaching context were positive and significant predictors of learning outcomes. Results of this study also found that deep learning approaches could predict learning outcomes. Overall, this study suggested that in-service teachers’ learning on the online training program still needed to be fostered to deeper level by modifying influential factors, which would cause higher quality of learning outcomes.
A1-4, English, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 501
Study on Teaching Practice of Public School Teachers Who Have Qualified as Teachers of Waldorf
Human being is the concern and philosophical foundation of Waldorf education. The ideology of Anthroposophy and the pedagogy of Waldorf education are applied to not only Waldorf schools but also public schools in many countries. Taiwan, no doubt, has followed this trend to introduce Waldorf to the parents since 1990s. Many daycares, kindergartens newly established or transformed turned into Waldorf education as well as primary and secondary schools. In 2017, Waldorf education-related schools and institutions are everywhere in Taiwan. Therefore, the demands for teachers in Waldorf education are increased. Many parents and teachers have joined in the teacher training northward on weekends and holidays in Ilan, Hsinchu and Taichung. In average, it takes three years or longer to finish Waldorf's teacher education training and get certified in Taiwan. Besides of those who are on purpose of getting certification to teach in the Waldorf schools, there are quite a few public school teachers who received this training and still, return to their position as the public school teachers. Why are they interested in the Waldorf education? What kind of dynamics has driven them to back and forth such a long time for the training in three years? After completing Waldorf teacher training, why are they still staying in the public schools? Does the training of Waldorf affect their teaching and instruction? How to they prepare classroom material and text with other teachers? How do they communicate with parents? How do those teachers practice the content of Waldorf education in schools? The questions above are the doubt of this study.
A2-1, English, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 503
Lifelong Learning: Understanding the Attributes of a Lifelong Learner
Lifelong learning is an important concept in the current educational landscape as we need to prepare our students to be self-regulated and continued learners for the 21st century. Based on the framework from the Ministry of Education, 21st- century students should possess lifelong learning goals and life-ready competencies. It is thereby important to understand the attributes of a lifelong learner. An education institution or a school should provide learning environments in which students can be more involved in developing their personal and cognitive attributes that are related to lifelong learning. However, the research in identifying the key attributes of a lifelong learner is still in its infancy. The present study aimed to uncover an in-depth and meaningful understanding of different learners’ behaviours, ranging from adaptive to maladaptive patterns of goal orientations. It drew on four different clusters to identify the self-regulation and self-determined behaviours of a lifelong learner. These learner profiles differed significantly in their basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, competence and relatedness) and goal orientations (i.e., mastery versus performance). Limitations and implications were also discussed.
A2-2, English, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 503
A Mixed-method Study of the Socio-cultural Adaptation of International Students in Hong Kong Universities
As a regional hub for education, Hong Kong has seen a growing population of international students. In contrast to existing conceptual models in acculturation literature that are often devoted to studying long-term settlers such as migrants or refugees in English-speaking countries (Smith & Khawaja, 2011), this study develops and tests a fine-grained model for degree-seeking mobile students. A mix-method was employed: a large scale survey (n = 619) across six Hong Kong universities and focus group interviews (n = 31). Bilingual competences were found to play important roles to predict socio-cultural adaptation together with academic efficacy, social support, contacts with locals and psychological adaptation. This study offered practical and managerial insights for educational policymakers, university senior management and administrations, academicians and research communities on how to manage the changes and accommodate the needs of international students so that we can attract a culturally diverse body of students. This research is significant because it extends the literature by examining socio-cultural adjustment during cross-cultural transitions in an increasingly globalized context.
A2-3, English, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 503
Difficulties and Factors of International Students in College Adjustment to Higher Education Institutions in Hong Kong
This paper responds to China’s current “One Belt, One Road” (OBOR) policy to promote the internationalization of higher education, Hong Kong’s intention to attain success in the global higher education markets, and the global academic trend in addressing the transition adjustment experiences.
Hong Kong is well known for its prosperous economy and high-quality higher education. Since most of its non-local students are from Mainland China, Hong Kong still has great potential to recruit more overseas students to attain competiveness in the global higher education markets. However, most of the previous research related to college adjustment is limited to international students studying in Western countries. Although increasing domestic research has shed light on international students’ adjustment problems in China, a limitation is that rare of those research looks at the group in Hong Kong. To fill the research gap, the purpose of this paper is to examine the difficulties and factors that affect international students’ adjustment to college life in Hong Kong. The pilot study will employ both qualitative and quantitative methods. About 50 to 75 international students from two to three major universities in Hong Kong with distinctive backgrounds will participate in the study. Survey questionnaire and in-depth interviews will be conducted. In addition, quantitative data will be analysed by SPSS to examine the impact of gender, major and social class. This study may provide broader implications for educational administrators, institutional legislators and professors from both the importing and exporting countries and regions to understand and help international students.
A2-4, English, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 503
“This Type of Feedback Is Biased Toward Chinese People”: Beginning Doctoral Students’ Ambivalence in the Feedback-Revision Process from a Second Language Socialization Perspective
Rooted in the language socialization paradigm, second language (L2) socialization refers to a lifelong process that occurs when people enter a new community, and is the process of participating in the linguistic and sociocultural practices of that community through language-mediated activities. As most L2 socialization studies focused on tracking learners’ participation in an oral activity, less attention had been paid to learners’ participation in literate and writing activities.
This qualitative case study aims to explore beginning doctoral students’ L2 socialization experience with a focus on their feedback-revision process in thesis writing. Data were collected from two ethnic Chinese doctoral students throughout the beginning two years of their doctoral studies at an English-medium university in Hong Kong, including their developing thesis drafts with their supervisor’s feedback, semi-structured interviews, and observations. An inductive and iterative approach was adopted to code and analyse the data.
The analysis revealed that the participants experienced ambivalence or conflicting feelings about accepting the supervisors’ feedback on issues related to English writing. The participants’ ambivalence was shaped by their negotiation of self-positioning and the positioning of the feedback providers in their sociohistoric, sociocultural, and institutional context. The participants’ past academic experience, awareness of the rules of the institution, and stances toward native-English speaker ideology surfaced as key themes in their L2 socialization process. The findings highlight the need for meta-discussion of the provision and reception of feedback between beginning doctoral researchers and their supervisors to enhance the doctoral students’ L2 socialization experience and the supervision relationship.
A3-1, English, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 504
Diversity, Inclusivity, and Citizenship in Kazakhstan: Textbook Analysis
In 2010, moral education was introduced as a compulsory subject with an aim to address the societal challenges of Kazakhstan. One of those challenges is the unresolved national question, a failure to reconcile the multi-ethnic and multilingual Kazakhstani society into one shared national identity. Previous studies (Assanova, 2007; Kissane, 2005; Mun, 2014, 2015) indicated the dominant Kazakh-centric nationalizing rhetoric, which continued to permeate the textbooks and exclude other ethnic groups from maintaining similar sense of belonging. Since subject textbooks in Kazakhstan are usually uniform and distributed by the approval of the Ministry of Education and Science, there is generally an assumption that there is little variation in the subject content for schools with different languages of instruction. As such, little comparison of how these issues are presented in textbooks with different languages has been made. This paper examines the moral education textbooks for Kazakh and Russian mediums of instruction, and highlights how unsettled nation-building policies are negotiated in the curriculum for different audiences. In order to examine how issues of cultural diversity and inclusivity are addressed in the school curriculum of Kazakhstan, this study applies a mixed-method approach of content analysis: quantitative analysis of specific categories and units of text and illustration that indicate frequency, and qualitative interpretation of the generated themes to provide contextual explanation. Hence, this paper examines not only how cultural diversity and inclusion are manifested in textbooks, but also what social and political implications they carry. This study provides preliminary understanding of conceptualization of citizenship and identity in Kazakhstani educational discourse, and will be further expanded in the doctoral study on citizenship education.
A3-2, English, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 504
Integration of Minorities in Hong Kong: A Conceptual Framework
Background: Hong Kong, known as Asia’s world city in the East Asian region, generally portrays cultural diversity based on the mere existence of different population groups rather than the enactment of macro-level policy that proactively attends to the social integration of ethnic minorities. This sociopolitical context underlies cultural deficit views that occlude institutionally produced racial inequities confronting ethnic minorities who, according to some Liberal Studies textbooks, need to “seek active help” and be “open minded”.
Aims: This paper proposes a conceptual framework for the social inclusion of minorities in Hong Kong. It applies intersectionality theory to account for multiple sources of racial inequities to help overcome deficit views inherent in Hong Kong’s public and educational discourses.
Methodology: Intersectionality theory points to how cultural deficit views operate across the axes of ethnicity, gender, religion, class or language in Hong Kong. We apply this theory with reference to media reports, extant literature and data from our respective research projects.
Results: Cultural deficit views manifest differently in each minority group, in which racial inequities represent different interfaces of ethnicity, gender, religion, class or language. Pakistani students, for example, recount racialized experiences based on skin color and language proficiency, while Filipino students tend to face racial encounters with reference to their gender and class.
Conclusion: Intersectionality theory helps reveal the multifaceted nature of cultural deficit views in Hong Kong, offering nuanced insights into each minority group’s sources of racial inequities. These theoretical insights may endorse dialogues about multiculturally supportive policies and initiatives.
A3-3, English, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 504
Is Ethnic Retention or Reactive Ethnicity Related to Deprived Educational Aspiration? Migrant Youth in England, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden
Whether or not migrant youth retain their ethnic identity or even reconstruct it in the second or third migrant generation, was in educational sociology frequently explained by their — on an average — higher educational and occupational aspirations in comparison to their native counterparts on the one hand and their lower success in the educational and occupational system. The paper addresses this theoretical proposition empirically. It uses the data from the first 3 waves of the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study in Europe (CILS4EU), which followed a representative migrant youth population in England, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden from the age of 15 onwards in their transition to higher education or vocational training. Ethnic retention/reactive ethnicity was measured on 5 dimensions across 3 waves: adherence to the minority culture (1) and language (2), religiosity in a minority religion (3), preference of minority friends (4) and ethnic identification (5). Pooled cross-sectional OLS-regressions on structural factors revealed strong positive effects of “cultural distance” and “country of residence” on ethnic retention (with migrants in Germany showing the highest tendency), and of “aspirations” in conjunction with “school problems”, which seem to support the theoretical assumption. However, fixed effects models on changes in ethnic retention during the observed transition period showed no significant effects in this regard, which challenges the core of the theoretical argument, as the development of the individual trajectory out of secondary school seems to be empirically unrelated to changes in ethnic retention.
A3-4, English, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 504
How Does Friendship Influence the Adaptation of Mainland China Higher Education Students Studying in Hong Kong
This paper explores the influence of friendship in mainland Chinese (MC) students’ adaptation to studying in Hong Kong. The number of MC students in Hong Kong has amounted to 18,887 in 2016, which makes it necessary for universities to cater for these students’ adaptation. Research has identified social-cultural differences between MC students and their local peers despite shared traditional Chinese cultural root. Existing studies have shown that international students can adapt to the new culture better and be more confident by making cross-cultural friends. Previous research has mainly focused on MC students’ difficulties in their adaptation, but how friendship influences their adaptation is still under-researched. This paper addresses the research questions: (1) What strategies do mainland students adopt to establish friendships during their study in Hong Kong? (2) What are the facilitating and hindering factors for mainland students to establish friendship? (3) How can friendship help mainland students adapt to their study and life in Hong Kong? A total of 24 MC university students studying in Hong Kong were interviewed. Thematic analysis was employed for data analysis. The findings show that friendship plays an important role in MC students’ adaptation to studying in Hong Kong, especially regarding daily life routines, such as how to deal with visa issues and navigate the university’s course selection system. MC students build friendships mainly through taking part in social and academic learning activities. Nonetheless, political-social conflicts between Hong Kong and Mainland China have, to a certain extent, hindered friendship establishment between MC and local students.
A4-1, English, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 506
From Good to Great: Designing High-quality Authentic Assessment Tasks to Enhance Science Teaching and Learning
Effective science learning fundamentally involves students in solving real-world problems independently or collaboratively by providing them with ample opportunities to develop scientific knowledge, skills and values. It is imperative that science teachers design their science assessment tasks as authentic and inquiry-based as possible to engage students meaningfully through critical thinking practices and real-world experiences. But, we may ask: What characterize a high-quality authentic assessment task for science learning? How do teachers design and implement high-quality authentic assessment tasks to engage students effectively in science learning? In this presentation, we will first introduce a conceptual framework for guiding the design of high-quality authentic assessment tasks in science learning. This conceptual framework draws upon the theoretical perspectives from social constructivism as underpinning principles of authentic pedagogy and assessment. High-quality assessment tasks typically exhibit a high degree of task authenticity and learner engagement which enable the learner to meaningfully explore, discuss, and construct concepts and relationships in contexts during the problem-solving process. Second, based on this conceptual framework, we will introduce an assessment task evaluation tool and provide examples to discuss how science teachers could determine the quality of the assessment tasks they design via self-assessment or peer-assessment practices in the school settings. Only when teachers are awareness of what constitute high-quality authentic assessment tasks and how to incorporate such tasks into their daily teaching practice could students be able to benefit from learning science meaningfully and effectively. Further implications for science education policy, research and practice will be discussed in this presentation.
A4-2, English, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 506
The Potential of School Entry Examinations for Impact Analyses: Reassessing Children’s Learning Environment
To investigate whether school entrance examinations (SEE) can serve as a data source for secondary analysis, in particular for studying composition effects of preschools.
Despite its potential for educational effectiveness research, SEE-data are rarely used for studying composition effects. Studies that draw on these data have limitations as they equate cohorts of children entering school with a preschool’s total composition (e.g., Biedinger et al., 2008; Becker & Biedinger, 2010).
Research on composition effects in ECEC is scarce, i.e., partly due to challenges in gathering data of a sufficient quality. Using existing data for secondary analyses saves temporal, financial, and human resources (Hyman, 1972).
The study draws on the DFG-project Composition effects in daycare centres that entails six cohorts (nchildren = 14,333) of a German municipality’s SEE. Using a quantitative approach, preschool compositions are computed by combining the cohorts using information on the children’s duration of preschool attendance. Correlation analyses are conducted to test the stability of the compositions over time, and they are validated by a survey of ECEC-settings (n = 84).
All data are anonymized. Results are reported on aggregated level. Inferences about individual children or preschools are impossible.
The study shows the potential of SEE-data to reconstruct preschool compositions. Correlations of r = .8 between computed composition variables and information given by the preschools indicate that the SEE-data provide a reliable data source.
The SEE provides a useful data source for empirical analysis providing policy makers and practitioners with relevant information in a timely manner. Implications for local strategies supporting children’s education are discussed.
A4-3, English, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 506
When East Meets West: Understanding Learning Diversity Among Diverse Student Populations in a Hong Kong University
Introduction: Diversity in academic learning environment is crucial to student learning, and it brings opportunities of enhancing the interactions among cross-cultural student body and encouraging students to enhance their capabilities in intercultural understanding and global citizenship. The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which students’ perceptions of learning environment, learning outcomes and engagement vary among local and non-local students in a Hong Kong university.
Methodology: Data collection was based on mixed methods. Quantitative data were collected from an annual student learning experience questionnaire over a span of five years on more than 10,000 student responses covering multiple student cohorts, various education and cultural backgrounds and diverse disciplines. Qualitative data were gathered from focus group interviews with over 100 first and final year students.
Results: Overall, local and non-local students generally perceived positive learning experiences throughout their four-year university studies under the new four-year curriculum in Hong Kong. Substantial differences of the perceptions between the two groups were revealed at several dimensions of their perceived learning environment and learning outcomes as well as university engagement (e.g., participation in activities outside classroom), and such differences varied over disciplines and cross-cultural student populations.
Conclusion: The findings draw attention to dimensions of learning diversity that may be present in student learning inside and outside tertiary classrooms, could make practical implications for informing curriculum design and enhancing learning and teaching, and may also have relevance to other higher education institutions with similar cross-cultural student populations.
A4-4, English, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 506
A Critical Inquiry into Hong Kong Higher-achieving Students’ Views on Native-speakerism in English Language Learning
Some critical pedagogies like Communicative Language Teaching goes against native-speakerism, which is seen as an imperialistic, colonial and noninclusive ideology. This paper presents 50 higher-achieving ESL students’ degree of native-speakerism in different ESL/EFL components, and how much it affects their motivation. Using a mix of a questionnaire survey and focus group interviews, the research finds that higher-achieving participants show stronger native-speakerism in components relating to standards (3.32 on the scale of 1–5), and they prefer learning methods and activities (3.22, 3.26) that allow them to achieve this standard, although there is no clear overall preference for or against native-speakerism. Students’ belief in native-speakerism affects their English learning expectancy moderately positively (r = 0.3319). Focus group interactions show that participants argue that native-speakerism may not be applicable in learning even if they consider native speakers as having a better English standard. The study concludes that these students actively take charge of their English learning and try to maximize their learning by obtaining the goods of both worlds: by aspiring to achieve native-speakers’ standard, while being able to communicate with the world, and doing so in a fashion that is effective and motivating. Results are only partly consistent with the evolving literature, and add higher-achievers’ perspectives over previous efforts by Holliday (2009), Cook (2002) and Dörnyei (2005). The work presented has implications for developing new pedagogy and educational policies in the post-colonial world and may contribute to better educational equality by informing critical pedagogy in ESL.
A5-1, Putonghua, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 507
A5-2, Putonghua, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 507
A5-3, Putonghua, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 507
A6-1, Putonghua, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 508
A6-2, Putonghua, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 508
臺灣之大學入學考試與招生新制度，教育機會是更均等，還是更不均？ ── 以學習歷程檔案為例，探究高中端教師之思慮歷程
A6-3, Putonghua, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 508
A6-4, Putonghua, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 508
A7-1, Putonghua, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 509
20世紀末，在美國心理學會主席Dr. Martin E. P. Seligman的倡導下，正向心理學發展成為一種心理學的新趨勢，Dr. Martin E. P. Seligman一直致力於將正向心理學融入教育，以減少年輕人的憂鬱情緒，並增進幸福感。本研究旨在了解國民小學正向教育、教師幸福感與學校效能的現況，並探討三者關係。
A7-2, Putonghua, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 509
2019年臺灣十二年國教即將上路，教育的議題更受社會大眾與家長們的關注，於是學校的品牌價值、教師的專業教學都比過去更受重視，校長的壓力也就越來越大。Solomon & Steyn（2017）表示領導者是組織成就的核心。所以，校長是領導學校的舵手，是學校經營成敗的關鍵。張世傑（2016）主張正念的學習是未來教育的一大主流，其已成為心靈教改的新興力量，正念是校長日常工作中可用的有力工具和基本能力，校長的正念領導為領導開啟了新的路徑，它提高了校長思維的高度，讓學校的運作與心靈的需求都能相符前進。基於前述，本研究期能探討校長正念領導、情緒智慧與幸福感關係。
A7-3, Putonghua, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 509
現今全球政經局勢不穩定，於國際政治層面，恐怖組織攻擊造成社會人心不穩；於經濟層面，經濟衰退造成各國的高失業率，勞動環境不佳造成勞資糾紛、勞工工時長等工作條件不佳的困境，令職場的自殺率增加；面對全球化、科技化、國際化的激烈競爭，種種時局變化的動盪不安，對組織的經營是嚴峻的挑戰（George, 2016），更突顯組織實施正向領導的重要。正向領導能幫助領導者處理挑戰，帶領組織突破困難、取得成功（Youssef-Morgan & Luthans, 2013）。
當前學校亦面臨諸多挑戰，身處現今多元變動的情境，如何掌握時代的脈動，營造正向的教育環境，是一項重要的議題。研究指出校長正向領導有助於教師工作投入，為達成學校的教育目標，仰賴願意額外付出更多時間與心力，在教學與專業發展給予同事協助的教師；換言之，校長正向領導，能增強教師利他行為的表現，展現教師組織公民行為，帶領學校適應時局和環境的變化浪潮，進而引領學校展現超越的表現，幫助學校朝目標願景發展，提升學校效能（Akar, 2018; Korek, Felfe & Zaepernick-Rothe, 2010; Liu, Siu, & Shi, 2010; Somech & Oplatka, 2014）。
A7-4, Putonghua, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 509
正向教育源於正向心理學，是美國心理學會前會長Dr. Martin E. P. Seligman提出，其中包含六大範疇：正面情緒、全情投入、正向關係、正向意義、正向成就感及健康。本研究擬透過文獻探討法，將國內、外研究文獻進行蒐集、分析、歸納、研究；並透過訪談法，將教師教學現場之實例作為佐證，使本研究更具實用性。
A8-1, Putonghua, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 510
研究教師領導理論，探索教師對身分的認同 ── 如何權衡教師與領導的身分，如何〝賦權〞於教師可以更好的促進學校的發展。並通過兩岸的對比研究，為教師領導研究提供新視角，為教師領導拓展新空間。此為本研究最主要目的。
A8-2, Putonghua, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 510
A8-3, Putonghua, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 510
A8-4, Putonghua, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 510
B1-1, English, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 501
Gender Analysis of Handcrafted Course in Junior High School Students: A Case Study in a Classroom
This research focuses on education of Gender. Gender analysis is a process of integrating a gender perspective into the planning, development and evaluation of policy or programme. This process can avoid failures because of gender-unaware. The research used the tools of gender analysis to assess the impact of a course of embroidery for students of one junior high school in remote area of Tainan. Gender Analysis Matrix (GAM) was used to analyse gender differences. Then it assesses the different impact of the course on girls and boys. Extensive interviews and conversation with the students were conducted as they went about their course. From their views and perspectives, we want to know: (a) What are the different behaviour patterns of boys and girls in the course? (b) How much time did they spend practicing after the course? (c) What skills did they learn? (d) How do they use the resources around them? (e) What works did they produce? (f) What impact did this course have on them and are there any unexpected results? The GAM can help assess which gender effects are achieved in this course and examine the influence beyond the course.
B1-2, English, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 501
Vocationalization of Secondary Education and Its Relations With Career and Life Planning Education: A Case in Hong Kong
Under the New Academic Structure (NAS) implemented in 2009, the fundamental design of the new education system was emerged. Vocational and professional education and training (VPET) was raised in 2015 as an essential step in the vocationalization of curriculum to provide students with a diversified pathway in their post-secondary education and to enhance the school-to-work transition for better employability in the future. On the other hand, considering the need of equipping students the necessary skills, ability and knowledge to make informed decision in the ever-changing global environment, the growing importance of career and life planning education within the Hong Kong education system is evident in its evolving role within the curriculum. A prime example would be the inception of career and life planning (CLP) Grant in 2014, which aims to facilitate the paradigm shift of career guidance and education for a more comprehensive support to students. Theoretically speaking, the role of VPET and career and life planning education should be complementary in nature to help students choose the most suitable career and life developmental pathway. However, few previous studies have examined both policy initiatives in parallel to generate a more holistic review regarding their impact on students. To fulfil this research gap, this paper will incorporate documentation review and interview data with senior secondary and university students for a detailed analysis and discussion. It is hoped that the conclusion and suggestions offered in this paper could promote a better synergy between these two important elements in the curriculum.
B1-3, English, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 501
Liang Shuming’s Synthesis of John Dewey’s Pragmatism and Confucian Idea in Chinese Rural Education
This paper illuminates the cross-cultural philosophical dynamics that took place during the 1930s by investigating the ways in which Neo Confucian Liang Shuming’s cultural conservatism fused Confucian’s idea with Dewey’s educational thought. The purpose of this paper is to answer a crucial question: How did Liang seek a way to connect his educational experience from Confucianism with his journey into Dewey’s pragmatism. By exploring a philosophical “dialogue” between Liang Shuming and John Dewey, this paper demonstrates how the intersection of traditional and modern aspects shaped Chinese rural educational reform during the Chinese Republican era.
Jane Roland Martin’s theory of “double-entry cultural bookkeeping” serves as a valuable framework for delineating the development of Liang’s intellectual course. This theoretical framework enables me to display that Liang Shuming’s vision retains the “cultural assets” of both his Confucian and Deweyan learning while eliminating the “cultural liabilities” from each.
In conclusion, following the notion of cultural bookkeeping, Liang expected to preserve the cultural assets of Confucianism and mix it with potentially beneficial pieces from Western civilization. In other words, Liang only viewed Dewey’s Democracy and Education from his Confucian perspective. The yoking of the Confucian ti-yong formula to Liang set a limitation to his full recognition of the value of Dewey’s educational thought. As a result, Dewey’s educational thought in Liang’s view, only plays the role of “yong (function)” in rural reconstruction. Taking a stance of the superiority of Chinese civilization, Liang strongly believed only Confucianism can correct the disadvantages of Dewey’s educational philosophy.
B1-4, English, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 501
The Changing Debate on the Challenges of Higher Education in the 21st Century
The terrain of higher education has been subjected to a series of challenges in the past two decades. This paper starts to present the current trend of today’s society. Technological and marketization become conceptually linked in a forced march towards the education field; therefore, it is important to draw links among critical perspectives for analysing. It proposes the STEAM (science, technology, engineering, the arts and mathematics) curricula and emphasizes that the arts education is an undivided sector to prompt higher-order abilities. Higher education institutions must rethink how to define and demonstrate subject mastery and soft skills such as creativity and collaboration. The next section opens the discussion of marketization of higher education and whether the core characteristic of universities is for public good or private good, along with the author’s viewpoints. By concluding, the future index of education is complex and uncertain as societal and economic factors redefine what skills are necessary in today’s workforce. It may be necessary to develop policies and strategic guidelines that allow for evolution.
B2-1, English, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 503
Preliminary Findings on Hong Kong’s Teacher Perception of National Identity and National Education
This paper gives some preliminary analysis on the linkage between perceptions of national identity and national education. A pilot-tested questionnaire has been sent to all civic education team teachers in Hong Kong secondary schools, numbering at about 458 in mid-2018. Through quantitative analysis such as factor analysis, it is found that some possible types of national education can be found, which add on the previous literature on teaching nationalism. This study shall be useful for understanding how teachers perceive their national identity and national education in this post-materialistic and globalized world but full of nationalistic imperatives from the policy makers.
B2-2, English, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 503
The Role of Civic Education in Developing a Sense of National Identity: Action Research in a Hong Kong Secondary School
HKSAR government is concerned about if the civic education could prepare committed citizens for national community after 1997. To develop a practical understanding for improving teachers’ perception in this increasingly significant curriculum at the secondary level, this study investigated how civic education, which is implemented through the subject, life education, could contribute to the development of students’ sense of national identity. Through action research into the development and implementation of a school- based life education unit, this study examined how the teachers of life education perceived citizenship and its impact on students’ civic learning. It also investigated the major issues and problems that emerged in introducing a permeation approach to civic education. The findings indicated that the school-based project achieved limited success in enhancing students’ senses of national identity. Difficulties were mainly related to teachers’ limited understanding of concept of citizenship and their lack of experience in introducing civic learning in the secondary school. However, the participative study let us have a better understanding of important issues related to the development and implementation of civic education, like teachers’ perceptions of civic education and the civic mission of the schools, the adoption of a permeation approach to civic education via the life education curriculum, the teaching of civic values through life education topics, and the development of a participative culture in the schools. These would definitely help to further develop the civic education curriculum in the HKSAR.
B2-3, English, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 503
National Identity and the Music Curriculum: An Exploratory Case Study of the Construction of National Identity in Hong Kong’s Primary Schools
This exploratory case study examines how music education in Hong Kong primary schools supports the construction of national identity. The concept of national identity in Hong Kong continues to be contested and complicated, in part as a result of 155 years of British colonization. This study includes the examination of the historical context of Hong Kong from the handover in 1997 to the present and the consequent changes of the understanding of Hong Kong’s national identity. Six primary school music teachers were interviewed in order to explore how the concept of national identity is being supported (or otherwise) by school music education. Five classroom observations were taken for a deeper understanding of the classroom practice and pedagogy in Hong Kong’s school music education. This study explores the teacher’s opinions with regard to national identity, the introduction of national identity in music education, their delivery of national identity through music education, and how they feel about developing a sense of national identity through teaching Chinese music. It concludes that the definitions of national identity in Hong Kong are complex and, as yet, not clear. If music teachers do need to teach about national identity in music education, further pre-service teacher education and in-service teacher education are needed to support the teaching of Chinese music.
B2-4, English, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 503
Student Learning and Engagement: Student Voices from the Common Core Curriculum
The Common Core Curriculum, often known as general education in higher education, connects students from all disciplines together to learn beyond specialization. With its interdisciplinary nature, one of the goals of the Common Core Curriculum is to broaden university students’ intellectual and social perspectives and to enhance their capacities demanded by the 21st century including but not limited to creativity, critical thinking, communication, collaborations and global awareness. This study aims to examine student learning and student engagement with the Common Core Curriculum, drawing on various resources consisting of both quantitative and qualitative data.
An institution-wide survey was administered annually to yield feedback from students, including their perceptions of the learning environment and learning outcomes of the Common Core Curriculum in different aspects, such as intercultural awareness, global awareness and intellectual skills. Open-ended questions in the survey and focus group interviews conducted with students from various cohorts were analysed to understand their engagement and experience with the Common Core Curriculum.
The continuous data collection exercise generates rich data and allows data synthesis. Results from the present study showed steady increases in student perceptions of learning, in support of the on-going development of the curriculum. Word frequency analysis on the qualitative data reflected that students were generally positive towards the values of studying the Common Core Curriculum.
The current study presents an example of using evidence-based approach to inform curriculum design and enhance teaching and learning practices, and proposes a data analytic methodology that could be generalized to a broader education context.
B3-1, English, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 504
Student Assessment Experience and Academic Achievement in Higher Education: The Mediating Effect of Self-regulation
A growing amount of research evidence proves the powerful influence of feedback on student learning and performance. The processes of formative assessment and feedback can empower students to control their own learning and become self-regulated learners and therefore enhance their academic performance. However, little is known about how student perceptions of formative feedback relate to students’ self-regulated learning and academic achievement in English writing. The current study aimed at examining whether self-regulation mediates the relationship between students’ feedback experience and learning achievement in English writing. A total of 1,200 undergraduate students in English major at three universities in mainland China was investigated after a pilot study was carried out with a smaller sample size of 100 students from the same population. Two instruments were employed for data collection in the current study, namely the Assessment Experience Questionnaire (AEQ) for formative feedback and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) for self-regulated learning. Three subscales (quantity and timing of feedback, quality of feedback, and what you do with the feedback) of AEQ and the cognitive self-regulation subscale (rehearsal, elaboration, organization, and critical thinking) from MSLQ were used to collect data. Academic scores in English writing were also collected. Self-reported survey responses for students’ perceptions of formative feedback (SPFF), self-regulated learning strategies (SRLS), and final score of English Writing Course (FSoC) were evaluated with confirmatory factor analysis and then a structural equation model. A model had been tested with SRLS as mediators between SPFF as predictors and FSoC as learning outcome. Mediation analyses results showed that how students perceived formative feedback predicted their academic achievements in English writing directly and indirectly through self-regulation. Implications for enhancing the student learning process and academic achievement through students’ assessment experience were discussed.
B3-2, English, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 504
“What I Find Important (in My Mathematics Learning)”: Hong Kong Students’ Espoused Values
The success of East Asian school education in general, and in mathematics education in particular, has been an ongoing subject of research over the last few decades in the “West”, suggesting that no conclusive factor(s) underlying performance appears to have been identified yet. The phenomenon of the “paradox of the Chinese learner” remains, while OECD data indicates an absence of correlation between affective factors and performance. This paper reports on a research study that has been designed to explore the possible involvement — and significance — in student learning of the conative domain, since most if not all prior studies had focused only on the cognitive and affective domains. To this end, a validated questionnaire was administered to 1,505 students from primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong. The “What I Find Important (in My Mathematics Learning)” questionnaire collects data regarding student valuing in three ways: a 5-point Likert scale (64 items), semantic differential items (10 items), and an open-ended, scenario-stimulated response section (4 items). Principal component analysis and content analysis of collected questionnaire data suggest that Hong Kong students highly valued 11 attributes, namely word-problem skills, activities, practice, exploration, ICT, connections, process, feedback, explanation, control, and certainty. These values are interpreted from a sociocultural lens, with some of these associated with Confucian Heritage Culture values, but at the same time having interacted with cognitive and affective factors potentially to optimize student performance.
B3-3, English, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 504
Examining the Impact of the ABRACADABRA (ABRA) Web-based Literacy Program on Primary School Students in Hong Kong: Year 2 Results
The current paper examined the effects of A Balanced Reading Approach for Children Always Designed to Achieve Best Results for All (ABRA), a Web-based literacy program developed by the Centre for the Study of Learning and Performance (CSLP) at Concordia University, on primary school children in Hong Kong. Approximately 200 Primary 1 students from two well-matched low SES schools in Hong Kong participated in a three-year longitudinal study. All participating students were pre-tested in the fall and post-tested in the following three springs. This paper reports the second year results. After adjusting for pre-test differences, the treatment school scored significantly higher than the controls on two of the three outcome measures at post-tests: initial sound fluency (ES = +0.30, p < .05) and phoneme segmentation (ES = +0.41, p < .00). Both treatment and control students scored similarly on non-sense word fluency (ES = +0.02, p > .05). The results are similar to those of first-year study. The outcomes of the study provide some promising evidence of the effects of ABRA on Chinese primary students in Hong Kong, especially on the enhancement of phonological skills, thus leading to early success in the formative years of learning English as a Second Language (ESL). Practical implications are discussed.
B3-4, English, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 504
Examining the Impact of the ABRACADABRA (ABRA) Web-based Literacy Program on Primary School Students in Rural Hunan, China
This project investigated the effects of ABRACADABRA (ABRA), a web-based literacy program, in facilitating literacy development on the third-grade primary school students in rural China. Around 340 students from 10 schools (five experimental and five control schools) participated in a seven-month paired-match study. Treatment schools received ABRA training 40 minutes per week, and control schools received 40 minutes of phonics practice. All participants were assessed before and after the intervention using standardized reading instruments of Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (William, 2001), and the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (Good & Kaminski, 2002).
While students in treatment and control schools did not demonstrate any significant difference in the pre-test, the post-test results analysed by hierarchical linear modelling (HLM) suggested experimental classes made significant gains over control classes: the effect size (ES) on Phonemic Awareness of 0.64 at p < .01 level of confidence, on Phonological Awareness of 0.72 at p < .05, on Early Literacy of 0.5 at p < .05, on Initial Sound of 0.43 at p <.01, on Segmenting of 0.74 at p < .01, and on Non-word reading of 0.74 at p < .01. This experimental study contributes external validity of ABRA in an EFL context. Second, it helped reduce the English learning gap and digital gap between students in rural and urban China. Third, the large ESs of this study serve as a rationale for further ABRA intervention in China and other EFL contexts worldwide.
B4-1, English, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 506
Do Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) Improve Educational Outcomes? Evidence for Spain in PISA 2015
Immersed in an intense and increasingly digitized world, determining the relationship between the use of ICT in the learning process and educational outcomes takes on special relevance to guide educational policy decisions in a reasoned way. The objective of this study is to estimate the effect of the use and availability of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) at school and at home on academic performance. For this purpose, we apply a hierarchical linear regression model approach with data from PISA 2015. PISA 2015 contains a brief specific questionnaire for ICT that is done voluntarily in some of the participating countries in PISA, this being the case of Spain. The results show differences in the sign of the impact according to the ICT variable used. The positive impact of ICT use is associated with the use for entertainment at home and with the students’ interest in ICT. However, the use of ICT for schoolwork at home and the general use of ICT by students in schools have negative effects on the learning process. Finally, some control variables related to students, home and location are also relevant in our models.
B4-2, English, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 506
Effects of 3D Printing on Aesthetic Education Activities
In recent years, the Ministry of Education has been greatly promoting the implementation of aesthetic education to enhance the citizens’ sense of aesthetics and establish the foundation of aesthetic education. Due to the invention of 3D printing, it not only brought about the Third Industrial Revolution, its advantages and features can also be used to supplement aesthetic education activities.
The implementation of aesthetic education activities are mainly perceived visually. Currently, the practice of aesthetic education at all levels of schools use 2D items as their teaching materials. Students can further perceive sense of aesthetics with real objects. On the other hand, students can nurture their sense of aesthetics through practices and operations so that they can learn through doing.
3D printing has a certain degree of positive effects on the implementation of aesthetic education activities. According to present literatures, it is a pity that there are few researches regarding such topic. Therefore, this study used in-depth interviews and the focus of this research is the application of 3D printing to supplement aesthetic education activities and enhance students’ learning effect.
B4-3, English, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 506
Learning Enhancement in Engineering: Simulation and Experimentation in Complex System
In engineering subjects, learning about specific complex laboratory systems theoretically is common. For engineering students, common problem faced is complexity in visualizing some of the intricate experimental systems and even the concepts in a classroom settings. On the other hand, if students are given a chance to work on complex systems in a laboratory, conventionally students rely heavily on several factors such as their individual effort, resources available to them and to quite an extent circumstantial environment. Such a traditional way seems to be unperturbed and acceptable to all stakeholders such as teachers and the students as the learning is purely grades-oriented whereas, in reality true learning is found to be highly deficient among students. More so, due to constraints of laboratory resources that includes correct procedural methods and lack of prior demonstrations of concepts in a laboratory settings, the challenge can usually only be encountered by conducting a series of experiments before gaining little success. In view of this, an innovative visualization approach on challenging experiment was instigated in a classroom where from fundamentals to gauging results and analysis was introduced via simulation.
Existing literature on specific experiment largely confines students to theoretical knowledge where they can refer only to published text. However, this research proposes the development of simulation-based pedagogy that can help create an interface between the learner and technology. Thus the main objective of this study is to introduce a pedagogical approach that assist students in enhancing learning interest and improve the visualization ability in the engineering-contemporary complex systems domain. The impacts of learning using two teaching modes, namely visualization as well as concepts in laboratory experiments, were measured. The different assessments including course assignments and examinations were tools to evaluate the impact of learning.
B5-1, English, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 507
Ethnic Minority Students’ Perceptions of Discrimination in Hong Kong: A Qualitative Study
Background: Hong Kong is a traditionally ethnically homogeneous society in the East Asian region in which ethnic minority-related issues are gradually becoming a concern of the public sector and mass media. One of the issues that non-Chinese minorities face is about the experiences with discrimination. However, there is a dearth of research among ethnic minority youth’s understanding about discrimination both in their ethnic community as well as larger society in the context of Hong Kong.
Aims: This study explored the understanding of ethnic minority youth which may help promote socially inclusive Hong Kong society.
Methodology: This study utilized a qualitative research design consisted of four focus groups including 23 Pakistani and Indian students aged 12 to 17 years attending both mainstream and pre-designated schools in Hong Kong. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis.
Results: In this study, both Pakistani and Indian school-going youth reported different levels of discrimination. Two main themes emerged in the conceptualization of discrimination: (a) gender inequality in youth’s own ethnic community, and (b) racial discrimination in larger society. While female South Asians shared their perceptions of discrimination as gender inequality in their own ethnic community, male South Asians reported experiences related to discrimination in a mainstream society which may show the interplay between gender, ethnicity, and religion.
Conclusion: Prior studies mostly reflected the experiences related to institutional barriers. Intersectionality theory helps expand our understanding of multiple levels of perceived discrimination faced by the young ethnic minorities in Hong Kong.
B5-2, English, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 507
Per Aspera Ad Astra: Navigating into Prospective Futures by Hong Kong and Kazakhstani Disadvantaged Youth Through the Aspirational Maps
Building aspiration has grown in importance for the nations within the Silk Road Economic Belt initiative currently placing premium importance on human capital under the global knowledge-based paradigm. A side effect of instrumentalist models is likely to manifest in the logic of inevitable competition over educational and occupational opportunities. This may entail serious consequences for disadvantaged urban youth who find themselves increasingly uncertain about their futures in the leading financial centres of Asia. Whereas international scholarship has acknowledged the equity-driven aspiration thesis, the topic continues to be a relatively ill-conceptualized field in the countries tied by “One Belt, One Road” economic initiative. Research in Kazakhstan and Hong Kong alike has largely focused on instrumental understanding of aspirations framed by developmental psychology traditions or economic rationalism models. This qualitative research project takes a critical sociological perspective to explore how high school students from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds in both settings imagine and map their potential life trajectories in an English classroom. English setting presents a useful exploration arena given the growing importance attributed to the subject as a predictor of university entry and socioeconomic mobility. An overarching research question is: How do young people shape aspirations and what factors influence the formation of youth aspirations? Theoretically, this study builds on capital-premised model stemming from Bourdieu’s cultural capital, Yosso’s Community Cultural Wealth framework, and Appadurai’s notion capacity to aspire. The project captures aspiration-in-the-making, i.e., a dynamic process of aspirational construction sensitive to multiple forms of youth capitals, individual agency and powerful structural forces.
B5-3, English, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 507
Language, Pedagogy, and Discourses of Criticality in Late Capitalism
Drawing on a 5-year ethnographic and discourse-based project with minoritized youth in Hong Kong, we reflect on how critical pedagogy may get constituted as a form of subjectification which opens possibilities for new practices while also contributing to inequality. We conclude by sharing insights for rethinking critical praxis.
At a time when neoliberalism is said to be increasingly entrenched within everyday educational processes, critical pedagogy has come under intensified scrutiny and critique. In this light, we turn to this field and re-conceptualize it as a “discursive space” in which normative ideas about teaching and learning are considered as historically anchored processes of production, circulation and consumption of professional forms of expertise that cannot be detached from situated networks, institutions and social actors who profit from them.
Through revisiting our previous work on networked trajectories of identification in relation to self-reflexivity, community, and commodification of pedagogy within conditions of late capitalism, we describe how critical pedagogy may get constituted as a form of subjectification, or “technology of the self” (Foucault, 1982) which, while allowing actors to engage in self-capitalization, contributes to reinforcing wide structures of inequality as institutionalized in contemporary labour markets. Against this background, we argue for the need of critical work with youth driven by: (a) use of transnational popular culture as a tool to generate dialogue; (b) an interest in providing nuanced portrayals of the dynamics and dilemmas involved in critical dialogue; and (c) an understanding of critical consciousness as a reflexive process of identification.
B6-1, Putonghua, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 508
B6-2, Putonghua, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 508
B6-3, Putonghua, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 508
B7-1, Putonghua, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 509
國小校長空間美學領導個案之研究 ── 以老舊教室改建為例
B7-2, Putonghua, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 509
校長領導對於學校發展、教師教學與學生學習方面的成功能起關鍵作用，有助於學校邁向成功，因而國際卓越校長領導計畫（The International Successful School Principalship Project, ISSPP）從2001年開始針對國際間卓越校長領導模式進行研究，發現校長在促進學校改善過程中有著極為重要的影響，其中，包含對於初任校長的深入探討。在這追求教育績效的時代，其研究成果對於初任校長的學校領導是極具參考價值的。
B7-3, Putonghua, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 509
玩興的興起始於對於孩童遊戲中的觀察，玩興的定義與內涵以1966年Lieberman五項操作型定義要素為主。成人玩興中，東方受到儒家思想影響，認為「玩」多為孩童遊戲，較不正經、不事生產，而西方人則認為「玩」是學習生存的開始，西方以Glynn & Webster（1992）五項因子為代表，東方則以余嬪、吳靜吉、林偉文、楊潔欣（2003）六項層面為代表。組織玩興氣氛的發展，保留了原始的定義：幽默感（Lieberman, 1965），但更多的條件是與環境、與工作夥伴及上屬的溝通、互動以及規定的寬鬆嚴謹有關。
國內外研究中，教育工作領域上、學校情境中仍缺乏相關指標性研究，本研究試以德懷術的方法，向10位實務工作者發放半結構式問卷以建構校長玩興指標，本研究結果呼應於Lieberman（1966）、Glynn & Webster（1992）以及余嬪、吳靜吉、林偉文、楊潔欣（2003）三篇研究，仍保留了自發性、幽默及外顯喜悅，以上三大層面，期能做為解釋具玩興校長的作為，並給與相關單位做為培育校長的指標性參考。
B7-4, Putonghua, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 509
B8-1, Cantonese, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 510
中華民國自肇建以來，輒受西方列強的欺壓，令國人深感外侮日亟。1925年的「五卅慘案」成了激發民族主義激情，引發全國性反帝國主義風潮的導火線。由於基督教與西方列強關係密切，一向被視為「帝國主義侵略先鋒」，面對反帝風潮，自然首當其衝受到打擊，最嚴重者莫過於「收回教育權運動」。根據中華民國大學院於1928年頒布的《私立學校條例》，國民政府把由外國人或教會主辦的學校歸類為「私立學校」，在行政管理方面，規定這類學校須由華人擔任校長，而學校課程不得以宗教科目為必修科，校方亦不得在課內宣揚宗教，同時不可強迫學生參加宗教儀式等。本文嘗試通過當時華南地區最具辦學規模的基督教學校 ── 廣州培正中學為例，分析教會學校如何透過加強國民教育活動，例如：舉辦配合官方意識型態的慶祝及悼念活動、發表對時局的看法、籌募捐款接濟前方將士、鼓勵參軍以禦侮救亡等，藉以增加學生的國族認同感，同時強化學校的愛國主義色彩，重塑民族身分，以面對民族主義的強勢衝擊。
B8-2, Cantonese, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 510
B8-3, Cantonese, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 510
C1-1, English, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 501
The Challenging Context of Education: Four Fundamental Principles to a Better Understanding of Education
Countries have been engaged in education reform for decades with modest progress at best. Numerous strategies and approaches ranging from curriculum reform, accountability systems, testing, changes in educational governance, funding schemes, educational standards, professional development for teachers, data-based decision making with longitudinal databases, pre-service programmes for aspiring teachers and principals, business partnerships and the list goes on and on. Despite a tremendous amount of effort and fiscal expenditures, progress towards equal education opportunity for all students has been slow and tedious. Achievement gaps between racial and ethnic groups as well as socioeconomic status continue to be stubborn holes to close.
Part of the challenge in education reform is that this enterprise has no easy answers and that is due in part to the context of education and its inherent nature. The aim of this paper is to discuss four fundamental principles which characterize the essential nature of education and shed some illumination on why some of the fundamental challenges in education are so puzzling. There four foundational principles are: (a) Education is inherently complex; (b) Education is inherently political; (c) Education is inherently value-laden; (d) Education is inherently relational.
Through gaining a better understanding of some of the inherent characteristics, it will help us to better calibrate our expectations, find education polices that work, and not lose hope in this fascinating but most challenging endeavour.
C1-2, English, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 501
Reducing Social Inequality on the Level of School Organization
The aim of the project is to analyse measures that reduce social inequality on the level of school organization. Only by generating informed knowledge about concrete measures it can be examined which measures actually work.
Germany’s educational report in 2017 states that it has still not been possible to sustainably break the close link between social background and educational success (BAMS). Studies point narrowing trends: The strong focus on the inequality development at the transitions of the school system has led to the fact that school as an organizational context as well as the processes taking place here have rarely been studied so far (Berkemeyer/Meißner, 2017). Research on such measures is scarce. School-type or school-specific offers are required but yet not available (Ditton, 2016).
The first step in analysing measures in educational science is to design a systematic map of previous scientifically generated knowledge. Based on this interviews with experts in educational science and actors of education policy will be conducted in order to generate further insights from scientific perspective. For analysis concrete measures, the school-practical side is focused, using interviews of school administrators.
The results of the systematic mapping and the first interviews will be shown.
C1-3, English, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 501
Implementation of the Whole-School Approach to Career Guidance at the Subject Level: The Case of the English Language Subject
Career guidance and counselling has long been a core element in many secondary school curriculums around the world. However in Hong Kong, it was not only until 2014 when career guidance was formally introduced as one of the core elements of the secondary school formal curriculum. Under the most recent reform proposal, career guidance is recommended to be carried out using the Whole-School Approach (WSA). This means that career development elements are to be included in all aspects of the entire schooling experience, which includes the teaching of language subjects. Yet, in the literature, a significant amount of research is discussing the implementation of WSA at the policy level. There is a dearth in research investigating how WSA can be implemented at the subject level.
This paper attempts to bridge the above research gap by showing how as an English and career guidance teacher, self-reflective narrative writing tasks can be designed and administered to promote career development and English vocabulary acquisition simultaneously at the junior secondary level. Content Based Instruction (CBI) was used as a mediating teaching approach to allow for the seamless integration of career development concepts into the teaching of the English language.
A case study approach has been adopted to provide a close examination and reveal unique insights of the issue (Yin, 1994). The study reveals that the benefit of such an approach is of twofold. First, the journals can help to identify vocabulary learning needs of the students. Second, the developmental needs of the students can be catered for more effectively as students felt more comfortable to communicate their feelings in the form of a written journal.
C2-1, English, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 503
Support Structures and Services for Internationally Mobile Students in Higher Education
The increasing number of internationally mobile students in higher education is a significant trend in the globalized world. Most of the students choose the study abroad experience in the hope of a high quality education, prestigious certificates and a successful carrier (Waibel, 2016).
Besides structural factors, the individual motivations and expectations of the individual are also important in the process of acculturation during the mobility experience (Massey et al., 2001).
60 semi-structured interviews were conducted with Hungarian students studying abroad about the motivation and contributing background factors of studying abroad, their acculturation and adaptation strategies (Hendrickson et al., 2011; Park, Song, & Lee, 2014; Ramos et al., 2014) and the realized or hoped success of their study abroad experience (Kartoshkina 2015, Waibel, 2016).
The sample of the interviewees was created on the basis of the students’ geographical distribution; most of them were conducted within Europe, and a few in the U.S. and Asia, at all levels from bachelor to doctoral studies in various fields of study.
The preliminary results of the research show that while the social status of the students’ family plays a decisive role in engaging in a study abroad experience, the structure and supporting services of the host universities are highly influencing the success of their acculturation and adaptation. Where social networks are created with a focus on studies, such as project-based learning groups, students report lower level of stress and difficulties.
The presentation will briefly introduce the structure of the research and share the first results.
C2-2, English, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 503
Studying Abroad: The Appraisal of Gains and Challenges by International Students
Despite the potential opportunities of studying abroad, moving to a foreign country to study also means significant life changes and challenges (Ramos et al., 2016; Ward, Bochner, & Furnham, 2001; Zhang & Goodson, 2011). In the framework of an on-going research on the adaptation of international students, this paper aims to uncover the processes and specific patterns of sense making of their acculturation experiences while focusing on the appraisal of the most significant gains and challenges in their studying abroad.
The thematic analysis of semi-structured in-depth interviews with 40 Hungarian students studying outside Hungary and with 50 international students studying at different Hungarian universities point out at the various domains in which they see the greatest gains, growths and challenges: academic, carrier prospective, language, social and intercultural communicational skills, cultural-self-awareness, personal growth, self-efficacy, relationships, social network and belonging, exclusion and discrimination, identity, financial, health.
Our findings show that the students use different frames of reference of social comparison in the appraisal of the gains and challenges. Country of origin, cultural distance as well as the socioeconomic status of the family and pre-migration motivation and expectations are significant factors. The appraisal of the gains and challenges is in connection with the psychological (how they feel) and the sociocultural adaptation (how they manage in their everyday life and their studies).
Further studies on the appraisal of gains and challenges by international students are needed if we are to gain a fuller understanding of and to be able to help their adaptation.
C2-3, English, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 503
Understanding Chinese Nautical Students’ Decision-making Towards Overseas Tertiary Education Integrated With Confucius Value and Cross-border Learning
By following the population growth, average life expectancy growth and acceleration of social economic integration, the needs of international education and life-long learning are being addressed overwhelmingly. Higher Education (HE) sector has already become the second largest national industry of Australia which contributes significantly to its GDP but still being regarded as an educational administration in academia. Therefore, HE’s impacts are indeed tremendous besides cross-border education is emerging as a brand-new popular educational management model for generating further economic value, better academic cooperation, education quality with higher standard, increasing global awareness and cultural exchange. This research primarily looks into the Chinese nautical students’ and graduates’ decision-making regarding overseas tertiary education and cross-border education integrated with traditional Chinese Value: Confucianism.
C2-4, English, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 503
Balancing Equity, Accessibility and Learner Diversity in Massive Open Online Courses
Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have been promisingly providing equal opportunities for people around the world to attend so long as they have access to the Internet. However, learner diversity is a common benefit and challenge in any MOOC. Participants can be at different educational attainment levels, from individuals with no prior knowledge to those having years of practical experience in the field. Nevertheless, both can benefit from interacting with participants who have diverse backgrounds and experiences while learning about differences in cultural and professional practices in MOOCs. Educators can consider the advantages of open access and equal opportunities in MOOCs when designing their curricula. This means that they can create a MOOC to offer to global learners or facilitate in-class discussions while their students gain diverse perspectives when attending related MOOCs. With reference to participants in the forum activity, this paper will discuss findings in a MOOC offered in 2016 with the inclusion of Hong Kong students attending a MOOC that was offered by a teaching faculty in a university in Hong Kong. A comparison was made in the average total number of postings, average length of postings made by Hong Kong and non-Hong Kong participants. While those university students had the opportunity to study in Hong Kong and could openly access the MOOC to discuss and debate with international participants with diverse backgrounds and experiences, their interests in maximizing the learning opportunities was debatable. Equity and opportunity of access to MOOCs may not constitute sustainable participant engagement.
C3-1, English, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 504
Code-switching as an Agent for EM Students’ Bilingual Development in a CSL Writing Classroom
The rising status of the Chinese language in Hong Kong has pushed its ethnic minority (EM) students to strive for better mastering of the Chinese language ever since the return of its sovereignty to China. However, most of these EM students in government-aided schools are still struggling with their learning of Chinese.
This study is premised on the assumption that code-switching (CS) can serve as an agent for CSL (Chinese as a second language) learning. The goal of this study is to investigate the role of CS in developing EM students’ language proficiency in a CSL writing classroom. It was found that students are enabled in interactions in the writing class and developed to be emergent bilingual in the CSL classroom with the help of CS. This finding is supported by observations in the classroom and interviews conducted with CSL student participants in a Hong Kong secondary school.
The present study investigated students’ work on analysing, transcripts of video recordings, and excerpts from group conversation; interviews from a focus group were also analysed. The aim is to illustrate how this approach might benefit the EM learner, which may have some implications on education policy, and shed some light by suggesting some teaching models of CSL for students from disadvantaged minority groups in Hong Kong.
C3-2, English, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 504
University Student Satisfaction of Chinese Students Living Abroad — Take the Case in Valencia, Spain for Example
With increasingly extensive educational internationalization, studying abroad is not only about promoting personal growth, but is also about creating the future of the country and the globe we all live in. Spain and China are right on the way, with a visible rise of numbers of students moving between both sides. However, the student satisfaction is paid less attention to. Here I investigate the study experience and related satisfaction of Chinese students living abroad, covering aspects of Learning and Teaching, Facilities, Extracurricular Activities, Administration, Campus Climate, Dormitory, and Transportation. Based on our results, student satisfaction is influenced majorly by learning experience, especially the teaching practice of professors, whereas the fact that the interviewee’s showing preference for learning in doing is contrast to previous research. Meanwhile, extracurricular activities and learning are interrelated both positively and negatively. Another indispensable component of student satisfaction goes to learning environment, which will affect students’ emotion, resulting in different effect of learning. Moreover, there is good cultural communication between the student interviewed and other Spanish students, which are in contrast with the perspective raised by El País in 2014 that Chinese students cannot always adapt to the study and life here basically because of the lack of Spanish language and cultural difference. But when it comes to academic communication in class, when confronted with conflicting views between peers, the student interviewed always chooses to keep silent. I, as the researcher, think it may be related to her personality or education she received at home, which needs to be investigated further.
C3-3, English, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 504
Assessing University Students’ Intercultural Competence in a Culturally Diverse Learning Environment
Aims: The present study aims to develop and validate a new instrument that assesses university students’ intercultural competence in a culturally diverse learning environment.
Methodology: We conducted a comprehensive literature review to aid us to develop a new instrument that assesses university students’ intercultural competence. Based on our review, we constructed a 50-item instrument and piloted it on 397 randomly chosen university students in a university in Hong Kong. Also assessed were their self-reported intercultural experience, cultural intelligence, Big Five personality, global mental health, and ethnocentrism.
Results: Based on factor analyses and item-response theory analysis, we selected 30 items from an initial pool of 50 to become the final set of items to be included in our instrument. The overall intercultural competence score measured by this instrument was positively correlated with the amount of self-reported intercultural experience, cultural intelligence, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience, and global mental health. It was negatively correlated with neuroticism and ethnocentrism. In a Hong Kong university, this score was also significantly higher among native English speakers than native Cantonese or Putonghua speakers.
Conclusions: The new instrument developed in the present study showed a high internal consistency and both convergent and discriminant validity. Practically, it can be a reliable and valid measure for universities to closely monitor students’ progress and achievement towards their intercultural competency. Findings from the project offer evidence-based implications for understanding and improving students’ intercultural learning experience and provide evidence of the capability of the university to graduate interculturally competent students.
C3-4, English, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 504
Post-school Transition Options for SEN Students: A Comparative Perspective Between Parents of SEN Students in Special Schools and Those in Mainstream Schools
According to two updated statistical reports, in 2014/2015, there are 17,981 students with special educational needs (SEN) integrated in mainstream schools. In 2017/2018, 7,896 students are learning in 62 special schools in Hong Kong. In searching for equality for students with SEN, for both special and inclusive schools, there is a common goal to help these students achieve as much independence as they can and “become well-adjusted individuals in the community”, so as to maximize these students’ potential to the full (Education Bureau, 2017). Unfortunately, there are relatively limited studies to investigate parents’ views of post-school transition options from a comparative perspective. With an aim to collect in-depth data from parents, this study conducted focus group interviews among two groups of parents. Among these options, early employment, sub-degree programmes, and further education in universities are three major options reported. Compared to parents of SEN students in special schools, those in mainstream schools reflected their stronger desire, but a relatively unrealistic transition option for mainly expecting their SEN students to continue education in universities. For parents of SEN students in special schools, although they understand early employment at sheltered workshops may be a main transition option for their children, they also raised their concerns and made recommendations to improve services of existing sheltered workshops in Hong Kong. Based on the results and an official implementation of career guidance and lifelong planning education since 2014 in both educational settings, we discussed potential solutions for catering for SEN students’ successful transition needs.
C4-1, English, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 506
Lesson Learnt from Teacher Preparation in South Korea, Singapore and Hong Kong
Introduction: As East Asia became the centre of high-performing school education, a considerable amount of attention has been paid to Asian highest-performing systems. The latest statistics about PISA 2015 results (OECD, 2016b) verify the success of their education again. Singapore ranks first at all the three dimensions of reading performance, mathematics performance and science performance, while Hong Kong and Korea also achieve extraordinary results, ranking second and seventh at mathematics performance respectively (OECD, 2016b).
Outstanding performance of students in PISA is always accredited to teacher quality which is affected and determined by initial teacher education (ITE), continuing professional development and teacher recruitment (Deng & Gopinathan, 2016). Many researches have been done to explore various teacher preparation systems in different countries around the word, some being one country or region focused, and others world-wide comparison. Yet, few are case study that focuses on these three Asian regions. As outstanding education systems worldly and of Asian regions, teacher preparation of Singapore, Hong Kong and Korea is of highly research significance.
Research design: Mixed method is used to investigate three questions: (a) how do these regions practice initial teacher education; (b) how do these regions implement teacher recruitment; (c) what are the key characteristics of teacher professional development in these regions. Three educators familiar with their national teacher education situation who are from Hong Kong, Singapore and South Korea respectively are being interviewed.
Purpose: The purposes of this research are to understand what are the major factors affecting and supporting teacher quality, why and how these factors affect teacher quality at different teacher preparation stages, and to provide a reference for and help other education systems devoted to improve themselves.
Result: Outstanding performance of Singaporean, South Korean and Hong Kong students in international assessment is not accidental phenomena. High quality teaching force is a vital factor. The key of success in Singapore, South Korea and Hong Kong is that they not only implement but also adopt suitable strategies to guarantee the outcomes. Teacher recruitment also counts for much. Last but not least, keeping the level of in-service teachers through professional development activities is of great significance. “How to implement” initial teacher education programme, teacher recruitment, professional development is more pivotal than “what is”, and should be taken into account cautiously.
C4-2, English, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 506
Inclusion Emotion Regulation into a Core Undergraduate Course: An Intervention Study
Empirical evidence shows that Hong Kong teachers, especially beginning teachers, are suffering from emotional challenges in their professional lives. This project aimed at enhancing student teachers’ understanding of emotion regulation and cultivating their capacity on emotion regulation to improve their performance in Field Experience. These were achieved through the inclusion of an intervention on emotion regulation in a core undergraduate course, which is offered just before Field Experience.
The qualitative data comprised pre- and post-interviews. Twelve students for experimental and control groups respectively participated the two-round interviews. These 24 students were asked to video one lesson and handed it to the project team. Quantitatively, the pre-survey on emotion regulation was conducted with 240 students in the first lecture of the course and the post-survey was conducted to the same group after Field Experience. The performances of the 240 students in Field Experience were collected for comparison analysis.
Quantitative data showed that the mean scores for positive emotions in the post-survey are higher than those in the pre-survey (Love, Joy) and the mean scores for negative emotions are lower than those in the pre-survey (Anger, Sadness, Fear), and three mean differences are significant, namely Love, Joy, and Anger. Qualitative data showed that they understood more on emotion and regulation and indicated that including teacher emotion and emotion regulation content in the course is helpful for their coming field experience and day life. Implications to include emotion regulation in training programmes are discussed.
C4-3, English, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 506
Hong Kong Pre-service Kindergarten Teachers’ Approach to Handling Young Children’s Sexuality-related Behaviours and Its Correlates
Young children are naturally curious about sexuality. It is thus imperative to implement sexuality education as early as in kindergarten. Currently, little is known about pre-service kindergarten teachers’ attitudes towards sexuality education. This study fills in the research gap by investigating Hong Kong pre-service kindergarten teachers’ approach to handling children’s sexuality-related behaviours and its correlates. Two hundred and forty-five students were recruited from a local pre-service kindergarten teacher training programme to complete a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics suggested that some pre-service teachers were unlikely to use an accepting and open discussion approach to handle children’s sexuality-related behaviours. Repeated measures analysis further revealed that pre-service teachers tended to use an accepting and open discussion approach when children displayed gender-typed play behaviours and showed curiosity towards pregnancy and birth. The prohibitive and punitive approach was more likely to be adopted when children showed curiosity towards sexual behaviours. Bivariate correlation analysis showed that the inclination to use an accepting and open discussion approach was positively correlated with the perceived levels of benefits of early childhood sexuality education and parents’ trust towards teachers and negatively associated with shame of talking about sexuality. Results of structural equation modelling, however, showed that the perceived level of benefits of early childhood sexuality education was the only significant correlate. These findings point to the importance of promoting pre-service teachers’ awareness of the values of early childhood sexuality education and strengthening pre-service teachers’ skills in handling young children’s sexuality-related behaviours (especially their curiosity about sexual behaviours) in teacher education programmes.
C4-4, English, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 506
Teaching Experiences and Teacher Efficacy
Research on teacher efficacy has drawn a great deal of attention in the past few decades. A great deal of research showed the strong predictive power of teacher efficacy on a variety of teaching and learning outcomes (e.g., instructional innovation, job commitment, students’ motivation and achievement). Therefore, exploring the antecedents of teacher efficacy has become an important research topic. A few studies have reported the relations between teaching experience and teacher efficacy. However, these studies either treated teaching experiences as a control variable in the study or measured a limited rage of teaching experiences. In the current study, the participants included 3,710 primary and secondary school teachers in Singapore. Their teaching experiences ranged from 1 year to 41 years. Teacher efficacy for instructional practices, teacher efficacy for classroom management and teacher efficacy for motivational strategies were examined. The results showed that all three types of teacher efficacy increased significantly from year to year in the first 5 years since they joined the teaching career. However, teacher efficacy remained more or less at the same level after 5 years of teaching. The implication for teacher education and teacher profession development is discussed.
C5-1, English, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 507
Nurturing Responsible Citizens: Pedagogical Practice in Teaching Ethical Reasoning
Citizenship is a highly valued characteristic in education, and ethical reasoning is an important skill in becoming a responsible citizen. I advocated a pedagogical practice emphasizing the use of local materials to teach ethics and employed the method of action research to refine the teaching materials in the process of teaching and learning. In 2017–2018, I conducted a knowledge transfer project to test this pedagogical practice in the Ethics and Religious Studies subject in secondary education in Hong Kong, developing a new programme for teaching ethical reasoning to students at the level of Form 4 to Form 6. The project produced a Resource Booklet of Ethical Reasoning, in which secondary school teachers can find 17 lesson plans on ethical reasoning in line with the syllabus for Ethics and Religious Studies in the Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education. The lesson plans were implemented in six secondary schools. A pretest-posttest design and cycles of practice were used to measure the impact. The findings showed that students were highly motivated in their study and they produced critical discussion of ethical issues in the classroom. The students’ scores also increased after comparing the pretest and posttest. The implications of this study are that the skills of ethical reasoning can facilitate students to think rationally and make moral judgements when they encounter a variety of personal and social issues in Hong Kong. The educational value of this study is premised on the belief that understanding ethical reasoning is the basis of nurturing responsible citizens.
C5-2, English, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 507
The Evolution of Inequality in Thailand: Educational Policies Related to Equity, Access, and Diversity
Aims: The first purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the evolution of inequality in Thailand, analysing inequalities and disparities. Then the second aim is to identify the key factors contributing to inequality and disparities.
Methodology and Methods: The primary methods of this study are document analysis (significant research studies in both Thai and English) and the analysis of a large secondary disaggregated data set with more than 50 empirical indicators from each of Thailand’s 77 provinces. These data were compiled from diverse sources, namely, various Thai government agencies such as the Office of the Education Council (OEC), the Office for National Education Standards and Quality Assessment (ONESQA), Equitable Education Fund (EEF), the National Institute for Educational Testing Services (NIETS); a private research company, Alpha Research which particularly focuses on disaggregated level social and economic data; and international organizations such as UNESCO and the World Bank. To understand “the story behind the numbers”, qualitative field research was done in remote Northeast Thailand to complement the extensive quantitative analyses.
Results: Many different genres of inequality and inequity in Thailand are delineated. The increases in both economic and educational inequality over time are documented. Key factors contributing to educational inequalities are identified: geographic remoteness (central place theory), dramatic wealth differences among provinces (lack of fiscal neutrality), and economies of scale (serious small school problem).
Conclusion: If Thailand is to escape the “middle-income trap”, it is imperative that all Thais, regardless of their ethnicity, region, social class, gender … must have the opportunity to realize their full potential. The paper concludes with policy suggestions to reduce inequities and improve access and diversity in Thailand.
C5-3, English, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 507
Limit of College Admission Support and New Challenge of Vocational Training as a Means of Solving Opportunity Disparities in Japan
In Japan, college admission support is often carried out in order to reduce opportunity disparities for high school students from low-income families. However, even if it is successful to make them enable to graduate from university, their income does not increase sufficiently for the tuition fee of tertiary education and their loan can be a heavy burden after graduation. Then, it is more important to provide the programme that has both practical vocational training and employment placement services without the economic burden of youths. This research analyses one of the most significant projects in Japan as one functioning both called ”HASSYADAI” and suggest how vocational training can be accepted in various social layers in Japan. It also refutes the Japanese trend to emphasize the only necessity of tertiary education for wider layers and argue the importance of vocational training through empirical research.
C5-4, English, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 507
Impacts and Challenges of Government Intervention on Equity, Diversity and Inclusion (EDI) Policies in Higher Education: Case Study of Future Energy Systems, Research Programme at University of Alberta, Canada
Future Energy Systems is a research programme at University of Alberta funded through the programme of Canadian Federal government (started in 2016). The idea behind the initiative was to give universities across Canada funds to further develop their areas of expertise to the world class level. University of Alberta's programme is focused on energy research and we currently have over 60 projects funded as part of it.
One of the mandates of our programme (as per the government instructions) is to actively promote equity, diversity and inclusion (EDI) and facilitate steps forward not only within the programme but at the whole institution. The ultimate argument is that achieving a more equitable, diverse and inclusive Canadian research environment is essential to creating the excellent, innovative and impactful research necessary to seize opportunities and to respond to global challenges.
The aim of this paper is to present multiple challenges faced this year in trying to put together an EDI action plan for our programme — from the basic lack of data (because of data protection) to the need to maintain excellence in student selection as our primary selection criteria (common concern for any higher education institution) and the fact that we are operating in a very decentralized environment. I would also discuss the impacts on the institutional procedures and policies from this government intervention. The methodology used will be the interview with the administrators and researchers both with FES programme and at the relevant group at the University central administration.
C6-1, Putonghua, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 508
城鄉差距現象一直是備受教育領域關注的議題，偏鄉學生學習動機低落態度不佳，是教學現場普遍觀察到的現象。臺灣因應教育變局，正發展新一波的課程改革，給予學校發展「校訂課程」的彈性。本研究之案例學校以「培養多元智能、終身學習的未來公民」為課程發展的核心精神，研發能夠連結在地現狀的校訂課程。本研究解析兩則課程案例，探討其成效以及帶動改變的正向因素與阻礙因素。案例學校研發校訂課程的過程，結合行動研究（action research）精神及事證為基礎（evidence-based design）的檢證方法。過去一年著重課程研發與試行，特別在「班級自治」與「七腳川溪主題課程」做深入解析。結果發現，經由推動校訂課程，學生有了多元的學習機會，豐富了學習的樣貌。值得注意的是，學生的正向變化，鬆動了教師的課程信念。教師為了建構校訂課程，開設了專題探究社群，承擔更多專業發展的責任。學校則因應新課程綱要的理念，帶動開發素養導向教學案例，並實施公開授課、觀課、議課，帶動教師的專業成長。
C6-2, Putonghua, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 508
信息技術如何影響學生素養？ ── 基於城市、城鎮和農村的差異分析
本研究基於國際學生評估項目（PISA）2015年對中國北京、上海、廣東和江蘇四省市的調查數據，使用似真值（Plausible Values）估算法和夏普里值（Shapley Value）分解法考察信息技術應用對基礎教育階段學生素養的影響，並側重分析其在城市、城鎮與農村學生間的差異。研究發現，在控制家庭和學校背景後，首次使用電子設備的時間對所有學生存在顯著的負向影響，對互聯網的興趣則存在顯著正向影響。信息技術資源佔有率越高對城鎮和農村學生的影響顯著為正，對城市學生存在負向效應。在校內借助信息技術學習對城市學生有顯著正向影響，對農村學生則有顯著負效應。在工作日使用互聯網對所有學生存在負效應，但周末使用互聯網則有顯著的正向影響，且使用2–4小時影響最大。家庭和學校背景以及城鄉差異是造成學生素養差距的主要原因，信息技術使用時間的影響高於信息技術使用方式的影響。加大信息技術資源在城鎮和農村地區的投入、合理規劃學生的信息技術使用方式和時間，對提升學生素養、促進教育公平有重要作用。
C6-3, Putonghua, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 508
中國大陸城鄉學生高等教育入學機會差異原因探析 ── 基於X、Y兩所重點高校的調查
C6-4, Putonghua, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 508
C7-1, Putonghua, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 509
C7-2, Putonghua, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 509
目的：本研究為發展一個擬真的低風險醫療器材研發專題（以矯正鞋墊為例）作為研究情境，期待在社會－科技－工程－美學－醫學（Society, Technology, Engineering, Art, Medicine, STEAM）的架構下，轉譯社會科技與醫療議題為案例導向學習，培育具醫學人文關懷的醫療專業人才。
C7-3, Putonghua, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 509
以行動學習載具介入導入國小課程之學童學習成效之分析探討 ── 以正確用藥單元為例
C8-1, Putonghua, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 510
研究方法：本研究以台南市都會區之國民中學學生為研究對象，以立意抽樣方式，選取八所學校共432名學生為受訪對象，將搜集之資料以PLS（Partial Least Squares）結構方程模型進行統計分析。
C8-2, Putonghua, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 510
C8-3, Putonghua, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 510
D1-1, English, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 501
Instruction on the English Tense System Through Systemic Theoretical Instruction and Cognitive Grammar: A Classroom-based Study in a Hong Kong Secondary School
The English tense system poses substantial challenges to second and foreign language learners in both morphological and semantic respects, and traditional grammar pedagogy conceptualizing grammar as rules of thumb fails to provide learners with comprehensive, accurate, or systematic knowledge on the system. The present classroom-based study aims at investigating application of an alternative pedagogical grammar method integrating the pedagogical framework of systemic theoretical instruction and the linguistic framework of cognitive grammar to instruction on the English tense system. Four instructional sessions were conducted in an English language classroom in a Hong Kong secondary school; tests were administered to examine impacts of the pedagogy on students’ grammatical performance and conceptual development whilst questionnaires and focus group interviews were distributed and conducted respectively to explore students’ perceptions of the learning experience. The pedagogical approach was discovered to exert limited impacts on students’ overall grammatical performance yet substantial impacts on their conceptual development of the English tense system. Whilst appreciating the novelty of the learning experience, students expressed concerns about complexity of taught concepts as well as linkage between such concepts and examinations. Several factors ought to be taken into consideration in application of the pedagogy to second language grammar instruction.
D1-2, English, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 501
Assessing Learning Needs of Senior-year-places-admitted Students in Hong Kong
Senior-year-places-admitted (SYA) student population represents a growing proportion at all Hong Kong’s tertiary institutions. However, local SYA students tend to feel disadvantaged from a “mismatch” between their learning needs and institutional offerings. To evaluate if the support for these students adequate and satisfactory, we conducted questionnaire surveys on SYA students’ academic status and learning needs in City University of Hong Kong. The results of the survey suggested that most of them experienced a drop in grades during the transition from sub-degree to degree study. Students were eager to seek support from academic and non-academic staff, leadership opportunities and future career preparations. Results also indicated that although the number of subjects approved for credit transfer was mostly the same as what SYA students expected, nearly half of them experienced difficulties with heavy study loads. We hope that our findings will provide a preliminary understanding of local SYA students’ learning needs, and also empirical evidence for the development of territory-wide support systems for SYA students in Hong Kong to enable them a better transition into new learning environment.
D1-3, English, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 501
Perceived Usefulness of Teacher Feedback, School Engagement, and Psychological Well-being of Chinese Students: The Self-system Processes Perspective
By integrating three research lines through the self-system processes model, this study was the first to test the relationships between students’ self-perceptions of feedback usefulness (to improve not only performance, but student-teacher relationship), school engagement, and psychological well-being (indicated by subjective well-being and emotion regulation) in Chinese culture. A sample of 305 year one secondary vocational students participated in this investigation. The results showed feedback orientations, student engagement, subjective well-being and cognitive reappraisal strategy of emotion regulation all correlated with one another positively and significantly. No such a pattern was found with expressive suppression of emotion regulation. In contrast, negative and nearly uncorrelated relations were found between expressive suppression and the affective, behavioural and cognitive (ABC) components of engagement. After controlling for feedback social awareness, feedback utility to improve academic performance was the strongest predictor of cognitive engagement, followed by behavioural and affective engagement in the path analysis. The ABC components of engagement were significant predictors of cognitive reappraisal (CF) and subjective well-being (SWB) and negative predictors of expressive suppression. The path analysis also showed a clear pattern of indirect effects of feedback utility on subjective well-being via engagement and cognitive reappraisal, and direct effects of feedback social awareness on CR and SWB. A socio-cultural perspective was considered to understand the teacher’s role in shaping students’ beliefs of the social aspect of feedback usefulness. This study is innovative and significant in examining students’ perceptions of teacher feedback, the links between these perceptions, school engagement, cognitive appraisal and subjective well-being. Research findings contribute to not only three important research lines (feedback, school engagement and psychological well-being), but expand current scope of understanding students’ learning and outcomes.
D1-4, English, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 501
Correlates of Hong Kong Pre-service Early Childhood Teachers’ Attitudes Towards and Confidence in Collaborating With Families
Home-school collaboration can bring numerous benefits to children, teachers and families. One of the major responsibilities of early childhood teachers nowadays, therefore, is to collaborate with families and involve them in their children’s education. However, not all pre-service teachers demonstrate high levels of willingness and readiness to do so. The present study aims to identify the character strengths and parent-related perceptions associated with pre-service early childhood teachers’ positive attitudes towards collaboration with families and confidence in implementing home-school collaboration activities. A total of 250 pre-service early childhood teachers were recruited from a university in Hong Kong and surveyed. Results of hierarchical regression analysis showed that after controlling for the year of study in the teacher education programme (as a proxy of professional knowledge), pre-service teachers’ character strength of judgment, perception of parents’ responsibilities in children’s education and perception of parents’ trust towards kindergarten teachers were significant correlates of their attitudes towards collaboration with families. Meanwhile, pre-service teachers’ character strength of judgment, character strength of social intelligence, perception of parents’ parenting competence, perception of parents’ trust towards kindergarten teachers were significant correlates of their confidence in implementing home-school collaboration activities. These findings suggest that in order to better prepare pre-service teachers to collaborate with families, it is important for teacher educators to help them develop positive perceptions about parents, an attitude of openness to diverse perspectives, and the skills of responding to others’ feelings in caring ways in different social situations.
D2-1, English, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 503
Challenges and Achievements: Student Educational Experiences in Internationalization Baccalaureate Pilot Programmes at CCU Business School, China
This research is an ontologically qualitative research by using demographic questionnaires and interviews. It explores students’ perceptions of their educational experiences focusing on the biggest challenges they face, and the most significant achievements they have accomplished in the ACCA and CIMA Internationalization Baccalaureate Pilot Programmes at Central China University (CCU, pseudonym) Business School, China.
Knight’s conceptualization of institutional internationalization provides the theoretical framework of internationalization of higher education for this study (Knight, 2012). Students were selected for participation using a four-stage non-proportional stratified purposive sampling procedure. The interview protocol design was structured as an episodic interview (Flick, 2008). All interviews were open, axial, and selective coded using NVivo 11 software and the resulting coding structure and data were analysed using NVivo matrix queries to explore thematic cohesion and between-theme patterns.
The biggest challenges identified by the 29 student participants focused on learning business content in English language, learning English language in business content, time allocation, curriculum and schedule issues, and study load. The achievements focused on business knowledge acquisition, paradigm shift, English language improvement, skill acquisition, attitude transformation, confidence and fulfilment, competitive edge, personal change management ability, cost-benefit analysing mindset, and influence of others in student personal development.
These findings also focus on student-identified links between the challenges they encounter to their achievements. In understanding the results, the student-learning concepts found in the learned optimism, growth mindset, and grit approaches provide potentially fruitful insights. The findings of this research provide valuable references for the administrators at CCU, Business School leaders, and the faculty members in maintaining and improving these internationalization programmes in order to improve students learning and outcomes. More importantly, the findings offer powerful, instructive implications for the university administrators in similar context in determining how student challenges should be strategically selected and shaped to generate positive student achievements.
D2-2, English, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 503
Why Do Public School Teachers Choose Waldorf Education for Their Own Children? A Qualitative Study
Background: Waldorf Education was first introduced to Taiwan in 1994 through the National Kindergarten Conference, and started to develop out of a kindergarten in 1999. Since then, this alternative education, fell under “experimental” category, has spread to all over Taiwan. To date, Waldorf movement keeps expanding and inspiring more people in Taiwan, including public school teachers. This qualitative interview study, through the lens of public school teachers in Taiwan, sought to gain insight into their reasons sending their children to Waldorf School despite themselves being public school teachers experiencing the effort on educational reforms in public education system over the years. Also, this research aimed to explore the participants’ opinions on the advantages and shortcomings of Waldorf Education in Taiwan after this decision-making.
Methodology: The sample of this research was composed of four public school teachers in Taichung City. Data were collected through audio-recorded semi-structured in-depth individual interviews. Analytic memos were then coded using inductive coding process. Content analysis was used to analyse the collected data, discover the emergent themes and comprehend the findings.
Results: Aside from the belief in Rudolf Steiner’s educational philosophy, the analysis demonstrated that participants raised anxiety on the rote learning style and pressure-choked exams in mainstream education. Participants found children’s improvement in various aspects under Waldorf Education. However, they voiced concerns on financial burdens as Waldorf education is costly, and some quit half-way due to worries of children’s adaptation in the transition to university levels since there is no exam in Waldorf schools, yet the entire mainstream system remains the exam-oriented system.
D2-3, English, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 503
The Bakery Loop for Tomorrow, the Work-based Education Strategy for Education Equality
According to topic 4 of the Sustainable Development Goal 2030 of the United Nations, the purpose is to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all, which the university has designed specific curricular in Food Management Faculty to apply the Bakery Loop for tomorrow, which is the content of bakery practice subject.
The Bakery Loop for tomorrow is the teaching consisting of 7 concepts of the bakery production (both techniques and practices) to deliver good quality of bakery products and be friendly for the environment as the core contents of the subject for the vocational development of undergraduate students to achieve their skill development in their future career.
Not only is it to develop the student’s abilities of the future entrepreneur in bakery business to meet their own careers, but also to promote lifelong opportunities for all, including those lacking opportunities of study in rural locations in Thailand by providing scholarships and host for them to support their study as the work-based education strategy.
The objective is to teach the new entrepreneurship to survive in bakery business by providing jobs in the rural area to reduce inequalities in studying and support the inclusive economic growth.
After the project has been implemented, tests and examinations were conducted to 580 samples of the target group. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were employed. SPSS program was used to analyse the data collected.
Significant result has been found. We believe that the work-based education strategy has efficiency for equitable quality education and promote lifelong opportunities for all in action of SDG4 concepts in practice in skilful professional development of curricular for teaching to the new generation in the future.
D2-4, English, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 503
What Happens on the Other Side? Hong Kong Students in U.K. Residential Schools
A total of 17.5% of all students in U.K. independent schools are from Hong Kong. Coming from very different educational settings, the students adapt to life in their U.K. schools with varying degrees of success. Despite the size of the student population, little research has been carried out into what happens to secondary-age students upon their arrival in U.K. boarding schools. The Hong Kong-based author spent four years carrying out qualitative research in a U.K. boarding school. Her research focused on how curriculum, structure and ethos facilitate or hinder intercultural integration.
Using a case study methodology and grounded in intercultural and social theory, most notably the work of Hofstede, Bourdieu and Shaules, the author looked at acculturation, educational adaptation and engagement with learning styles. Differences were noted in the rate and level of adaptation based on students’ prior educational experiences, family attitudes towards education and age upon arrival in the U.K. Of particularly interest was the adaptation process of students from Hong Kong DSS and local schools. Most notable for future research is the significance of student and family attitudes towards education and the structure and values of the host school.
D3-1, English, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 504
The Acculturation Experiences of Non-local University Students Through Their Intercultural Communication Intelligence in Hong Kong
Informed by research literature about intercultural competence development, this paper aims to explore non-local students’ skills and strategies in communication when they study at a university in Hong Kong. The previous research indicated that they usually experience many problems to adapt into host culture and country because they are lacking in language proficiency and social-cultural knowledge. Students’ prior learning experience, attitude, psychological or behavioural factors can affect their communication skills. In addition, different languages, dialects, accents, characters or cultural difference between their home and host cultures can also cause communication barriers to the students. This study shows that most of the non-local students, mainly the Chinese, still encounter language difficulties in communication in a Chinese society. Such difficulties are reported in studies on Gangpiaos (literally meaning Mainland Chinese drifters in Hong Kong) as well; the word “drifter” implies adaptation difficulties for Mainland Chinese immigrates. Nonetheless, existing empirical studies have been seldom tapped into non-local university students’ intercultural communication capability and how they cope with their communication difficulties in a Chinese society. The present study seeks to fill this research gap in the literature. Based on in-depth interviews with 30 non-local students who were studying in undergraduate, graduate and doctoral programmes, this paper adopted thematic analysis to examine the students’ language obstacles and identify the pattern of their communication practices in the process of intercultural adaptation in Hong Kong. Coping strategies in communication and implications for policies, which assist in young Gangpiaos in developing their intercultural communication knowledge and skills, are drawn based on the findings.
D3-2, English, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 504
Who Are the Ethnic Minorities in International University Service-Learning? Reflections from a Hong Kong-Kenya University-Community Service-Learning Trip
International service-learning has become a more popular programme in Hong Kong universities and most service-learning projects are located in so-called “ethnic-minorities” regions or countries as categorized and documented in both universities and government documents. The notion of “ethnic minorities” is also one of the major reasons or attractions for universities and students to join. This gives an image that international service-learning in Hong Kong universities implies “service-learning in ethnic minorities’ regions”.
However, who are ethnic minorities in international service-learning? This presentation will address this question by using the researcher’s own reflections and experience of organizing and joining a Hong Kong-Kenya university-community service-learning. As an organizer and a participant of the case-studied trip, the researcher experienced his change of identity from a “local” (applying for a service-learning trip to “ethnic-minorities” region in one Hong Kong university) to an “ethnic minority” in Kenya (during his service-learning period). The researcher experienced a lot of socio-cultural (mis)conceptions as an ethnic minority during his stay and has reflected that there is indeed no a definite ethnic minority in international service-learning.
This researcher’s experience and reflections have revealed that every ethnicity can possibly be “minor’ in international service-learning. Students joining international service-learning should be ready to experience an “ethnic minority” identity. From this, students will be able to have a deeper social-political understanding of the service learning community, which can help construct a more comprehensive picture of ethnic minorities in higher education.
D3-3, English, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 504
The Views of Primary Mathematics Teachers Towards Using Curriculum Adaptation to Cater for Students’ Diversity: A Case Study
This study aims to explore and provide a landscape of the views of mathematics teachers towards using curriculum adaptation to cater for students’ diversity. There are three research questions this study aims to answer: (a) Teachers’ understanding and attitude of curriculum adaptation; (b) Teachers’ views regarding the effectiveness of the curriculum adaptation to catering for students’ diversity; (c) The kind of support teachers require. The study used a local primary school as a case study. It adopts both questionnaires from all the mathematics teachers and interviews with curriculum leader of the school, as well as the head teacher of mathematics. The results show that teachers are very positive about curriculum adaptation. They believe curriculum adaptation is effective in catering for students’ diversity. However, there are challenges in the process of executing curriculum adaptation. More training regarding the strategies for curriculum adaptation are required.
D3-4, English, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 504
An Intercultural CSL Classroom for EM Learners’ Writing Competency
In response to the concern about how to enhance EM students’ mastery of Chinese, a diversity and intercultural learning environment in CSL classroom is essential to EM students’ Chinese learning. Writing is one of the most important and challenging skills, involving a complicated process of generating ideas and transforming them into written language. The teaching of composition writing should progressively extend from the training of speaking, reading and listening, to enhancing competence in composition writing. However, most of the CSL writing pedagogies fail to integrate all four skills but focus on reading and writing only, resulting in poor learning outcomes.
This study is premised on the assumption that oral language was instrumental in investigating the intersection of writing and speech. It was found that code-switching is the most critical factor influencing students’ vocabulary choice for their writing. It functions as conversational resources for EM students to learn in a multicultural context; EM students develop different kinds of communicative strategy which integrate all four skills to facilitate their Chinese writing. The finding is supported by observations in classroom and interviews conducted with CSL student participants in a Hong Kong secondary school.
The present study investigated students’ work on analysing, transcripts of video recording, and excerpts from group conversation. Interviews from focus group were also analysed. The aim is to illustrate how this approach might benefit to EM learners, which may have some implications on CSL pedagogy.
D4-1, English, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 506
Exploring Subject Leaders’ Instructional Leadership in Facilitating Teacher Professional Development Under Curriculum Reform
The study examines middle leadership of the subject leaders (SLs) of English, Mathematics and Chinese at four primary schools in Guangzhou. The focus is on their instructional engagement and leadership involvement in facilitating teachers’ professional development within the theoretical framework of instructional, distributed and teacher leadership. It was a qualitative multimethod case study, involving observation, documentary analysis, and semi-structured interviews with 12 SLs, 16 classroom teachers, and four principals. Participants were selected from three types of schools: provincial exemplary schools (those with first-rate resources), district exemplary schools (less prestigious than their provincial counterparts), and ordinary schools (less competitive in terms of resources).
The study presents SLs’ “influence space” in fostering teacher learning in the reform process. SLs can favour educational changes that tie together teacher development, curriculum management, school culture and organization. The analysis provides insights into how SLs perceived and operationalized their roles and responsibilities in shaping teacher professional development activities that built teacher understanding and capacity to meet the requirements of curriculum reform. Implications are drawn about the relationships between curriculum reform, middle leadership and teacher development.
The result indicates that SLs identified the nature of their work to be that of fostering teaching and learning in response to the curriculum reform. To make curriculum change “happen” at their schools, SLs sought to nurture a learning community at their schools in order to continuously develop teacher professional capacities. They also strengthened and promoted the activities of teaching-research groups and lesson preparation groups to facilitate teachers’ collaborative learning. To enhance their position within the requirements of the curriculum reform, SLs learned actively from the external resources to initiate the curriculum transformation. The findings illustrate that SLs took full advantage of school direction, current policy enactment of curriculum reform and school structure as platforms for improving teacher development. Apart from the positive signs, perceptible gaps in SLs’ role in leading teacher development were also identified.
D4-2, English, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 506
A Study of the Meaning and Development of Teachers’ Career Calling
The purpose of this study is to investigate the meaning and the development of teachers’ career calling. Purposive sampling was used to select six participants who have at least ten-year teaching experiences and have won the SUPER TEACHER AWARD in recent five years for in-depth interviews. Qualitative and grounded theory methods were applied for data analysis to integrate the participants’ shared experiences.
The results showed that the development of teachers’ career calling is a dynamic process. Such development is based on the learning and life experiences of teachers and their perceptions on classroom conditions and the educational system. The apprehensions from students, parents, peers, and the general public on the challenges within the classroom and in the educational system significantly contribute to the development. It is through such self-reflection and the desire to make improvement that the calling of a teacher is cultivated.
The development of the teachers’ career calling revolves around three main dimensions: (1) cognitive dimension — constructing core educational beliefs and philosophy; (2) affective dimension — integrating interests, dedications and passion for teaching; (3) action dimension — making efforts to overcome challenges through teaching, interactions with students and collaboration with other teachers.
In summary, this study has defined and described the meaning and the process of teachers’ career calling. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were further discussed.
D4-3, English, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 506
A Pilot Study on Impact Evaluation of Professional Development Programme for In-service Teachers at an Australian Institution
Equity, quality, diversity and sustainability are the priorities under the review of Australian higher education. Australian universities have a central academic development unit, but with significantly varied landscape of mission statements, organizational structure, provision, institutional support, and resourcing. Currently, teacher professional development programme is generally offered for university teachers to enhance their teaching learning quality. However, whether various teacher development programmes work and how they influence teachers’ skills, practices and ultimately lead to improved learning, remain largely unanswered in higher education. Although information gleaned from teacher evaluation is a valuable source for short-term satisfaction, it does not render any insights into the long-term effectiveness and impact of a programme. This pilot study attempts to address the lack of information about the effectiveness and long-term impact of a teacher development programme at an Australian institution. The pilot aims to evaluate the impact of teacher preparation programme; understand the factors influencing the effectiveness of such programmes on teacher behaviours and student approaches to learning and institutional culture. Both quantitative survey and qualitative interview are used. The findings demonstrate the impact of teacher preparation has on teachers at varied levels. The course is evaluated as useful for laying a strong foundation in pedagogy and curriculum design, modelling effective teaching practices, and encouraging regular reflections. The study provides a successful evidence-based research exemplar that can be adapted or customized for various teacher development programmes. It is significant in enhancing sector-wide understanding of the different purposes and impacts of different types of teacher preparation programme.
D4-4, English, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 506
Performing to Teach in a Neo-liberal Era: A Reflection on English Language Education in HK Through the Lens of Critical Applied Drama
In the last few decades, critical educators and scholars in Hong Kong and elsewhere have been studying influences of neoliberalism on various aspects of school educational practices. Along similar lines, scholars and practitioners in applied drama/theatre education — a field informed by diverse theoretical and philosophical resources including Deweyan progressive education, Freirean critical pedagogy and Vygotskian sociocultural approach to learning — have been exploring how dramatic space and time, language, tension and metaphor can be deployed as pedagogy for learner-centred, embodied and reflective learning in school education and beyond.
This paper focuses on one such applied drama/theatre project in the form of an in-service teacher training programme the two authors conducted for serving Hong Kong English teachers on teaching English through drama. The paper examines how the drama pedagogy has called the teachers’ attention to the taken-for-granted ways of lesson planning and assessing their students’ English learning. It further analyses some teachers’ preconceptions of drama mainly as performing acts and their preoccupations with the students and the school to perform according to certain prescribed ways and criteria of “success” in English language education (ELE) and language use. The paper will end by examining these emerging issues and challenges of neoliberalism on ELE in Hong Kong with an attempt to ask further questions about English learning, teaching and assessments through the lens of critical applied drama and Richard Schechner’s notion of make-belief and make-believe performances.
D5-1, English, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 507
Deregulation and Re-regulation of Taiwan’s Non-school Experimental Education — Taking Individual Experimental Education as an Example
In recent years, Taiwan’s educational innovations have focused on how to respect individual differences in students’ learning, develop a diverse and open learning atmosphere, reinforce the educational opportunities of democratic equality, and construct various school-based learning courses. In order to meet the educational choices of parents and effectively achieve equal opportunities in education, Taiwan government had amended and stipulated the relevant non-school experimental education regulations since 1999. In response to the social atmosphere and needs, the related experimental education acts (well-known as the “Three-Type Acts of Experimental Education”) were promulgated in 2014, and the amendments were officially passed by the Legislative Yuan in 2017, providing the experimental education with more flexible space to implement Taiwan’s education reform. For the diversity of experimental education in Taiwan, this paper aims to explore the deregulation and re-regulation of individual experimental education in Taiwan’s non-school experimental education, and to understand the situation of individual application through literature analysis. Based on the induction of the design of the curriculum, the teaching methods of teaching materials and the evaluation of educational institutions, through the discussion and exploration of relevant issues, we examined and studied the feasible directions for individual application for non-school experimental education in the future. At the same time, we put forward four major aspects of curriculum planning, student learning, teacher teaching, results evaluation, and its feasible strategies for the future implementation of individual experimental education.
D5-2, English, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 507
The Influence of Parental Cultural Capital and Support on Chinese Students’ Musical Instrument Learning
Although increased scholarly attention is being focused on parental influence, little attention has been given to students’ perception of the influence of parental cultural capital and support on their instrument learning, in the Chinese context. This paper seeks to fill that research gap, with specific reference to two cosmopolitan cities in China, Beijing and Hong Kong. Employing Pierre Bourdieu’s cultural capital theory, it addresses two research questions: (a) How do students perceive the influence of parental cultural capital and support on their instrument learning? (b) To what extent does parental cultural capital affect their support of students’ instrument learning? A survey questionnaire was distributed to Grade Seven to Grade Nine students in eight Beijing and 10 Hong Kong secondary schools, in the summer of 2015. Based on the findings from the 3,288 questionnaires collected, this paper explores the relationship between parental cultural capital and support, how these two factors influence students’ instrument learning, and the intergenerational transmission of cultural capital. This paper also discusses how parental influence is perceived in these two cities, and how that perception is shaped by social and cultural factors in the Chinese context.
The survey shows that parents with greater cultural capital (i.e., higher education attainment and an instrument learning background) were more engaged in, and more intensely supported their children’s instrument learning (Beijing: β = .155, p < .01; Hong Kong: β = .266, p < .01); specifically, they more often communicated with their children’s instrument tutors and supported them musically, which in turn motivated their children to learn an instrument. The findings also show that parental cultural capital facilitated the cultivation of the children’s cultural capital, particularly for enrolment into instrument classes (Beijing: β = .191, p < .01; Hong Kong: β = .189, p < .01). The findings also indicate parental reminders to practice (Beijing: Mean = 3.38; Hong Kong: Mean = 2.98; 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree) were perceived as important, but did not necessarily enhance children’s motivation to pursue greater learning. This paper proves the interplay between parental cultural capital and support, and how it influences students’ instrument learning. Also, it may unveil aspects of the intergenerational transmission of cultural capital, in terms of instrument learning. This study helps to explain how social and cultural factors may shape parents’ motivation, and thus influence both the types of parental support offered, and children’s perception of the importance of such support, in the Chinese context. This study concludes that parental cultural capital and support affect children’s instrument learning, and that children long for a musical home environment, mediated by such parental cultural capital and support.
D5-3, English, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 507
Teacher Collaboration on Inquiry-based Approach for Self-regulation: A Mixed-methods Study
Teacher collaboration to support the use of inquiry-based approach has been a central issue for pedagogical transformation. This mixed-methods study aimed at exploring the professional learning opportunities to cultivate self-regulation for students in the inquiry process. With both qualitative and quantitative data, it examined the multi-voiced system of contemporary curriculum implementation for both teachers and students. By using discourse analysis, the video records illustrated how teacher interaction shaped the collaborative practice. In the meantime, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey administered twice assessed the student perception of classroom interaction which reflected the effectiveness of support from a different social setting. Results showed that the actual course of professional learning was established based on their collaborative routine but limited by the tensions identified in the intricate educational practice. The questionnaire data suggested that individual problem-solving correlated with the different types of classroom interaction, which could either strengthen or stifle students’ engagement. The two strands of data merged interactively and filled the gap on the adequate facilitation to the inquiry process. The overall analysis suggests that a flexible design is crucial to meet the learner diversity as the rule of teacher collaboration. This exploration of self-regulation in the classroom generates a comprehensive agenda for professional learning as the primary focus of this study. By building up space in the process of enculturation, it creates a personalized experience for students and provides an extensive basis for the development of teacher collaboration.
D6-1, Putonghua, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 508
D6-2, Putonghua, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 508
框架與階級複製 ── 一個偏鄉藝術教師的反思
D6-3, Putonghua, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 508
從美感覺知到生活實踐 ── 「比例」構面美感教育課程實踐與省思
D6-4, Putonghua, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 508
D7-1, Putonghua, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 509
上學期，透過「來說我們的故事」，期待故事的方式、結構、閱讀與種類等概念，找尋適合幼兒的需求並體驗美妙歷程。在教學活動中「說傳統故事」希望可以引發幼兒學習族語及文化的樂趣。下學期「傳統作物 － 小米」，年祭後開始認識小米，小米是臺灣原住民傳統中主要農作物，小米視為神聖作物且具靈性。從播種到收割須舉行祭典儀式，文化課程以小米為起點，進而認識自己、認同自身文化，包容他人且具有正向態度面對未來。
D7-2, Putonghua, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 509
D7-3, Putonghua, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 509
D7-4, Putonghua, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 509
臺灣原住民族文化回應數學教材之設計與實踐 ── 以阿里山鄒族為例
D8-1, Cantonese, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 510
學生會因無從入手評量自己的寫作文章及欠缺修訂的方法，而放棄修訂寫作文章（Graham, McArthur & Schwartz, 1995）。這進一步顯示學生需要掌握修訂的策略，根據文體的要求作出相對的修訂，這便有賴於教師的教學鷹架讓學生建立更為明確的寫作框架及標準，從而激活學生對寫作修訂的概念及實踐方法（Myhill & Jones, 2007），例如是修訂的策略不論是CDO（比較、診斷及行動）模式（De La Paz, Swanson, & Graham, 1988）。不少學者進一步提出可因應寫作的重點設置檢核表，從而引導學生檢測和修訂文章。教師需要在檢核表上列出標準及相應的做法，讓學生於完成寫作後回顧文章，並自行檢測出需要修改的內容（Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1987；謝錫金、岑紹基，2000）。
D8-2, Cantonese, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 510
D8-3, Cantonese, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 510
S1, English, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA LT3
What Do We Know About the Effects of Inclusive Education? An Integrative Perspective of Students and Teachers on Career Adaptability, Emotions, Self-concept, and Psychological Well-being
Integrated education (also known as inclusive education globally) has been launched in Hong Kong education system for over 20 years. Despite collective efforts made by multiple stakeholders to strive for equal learning opportunities of students with special educational needs through being physically integrated in regular classrooms, far less has been done to know more about this population of students’ perceptions of their social, emotional and academic gains from a psychological perspective. Similarly, emotions and psychological well-being of teachers who are frontline implementers of inclusive education have also been neglected to a large extent. The key purpose of this symposium is to organize these updated studies on students’ and teachers’ social, emotional and academic gains from inclusive education to examine the effects of inclusive education mainly from a psychological perspective (other perspective will also be moderately introduced). The first two papers focus on students with special educational needs. The other two papers examined these key variables in teachers. Regular and special schools teachers are involved. The results will be presented and discussed in details.
S2, English, 14:00 – 15:30, YIA 505
The Role of Arts Education in the Age of Cultural Diversity: Challenges for Education Practice and Research
This panel intends to focus on multicultural issues involving challenges to the role and value of school education by opening a discussion of the meaning of traditional and progressive education in contemporary arts education today. The panel will present the interpretation and the concepts of East/West, local/national, traditional, and contemporaneity in arts education to address the challenges of a changing society in Asia. With a particular focus on Asian education (including Mainland China, Hong Kong, Japan, and Singapore) over the last few decades, modernization and globalization (including economic globalization), localization, and nationalization have created new imperatives and challenges for school education. This panel intends to explore and examine the complexity of relationships between social transformation, education development, cultural diversity, and creativity in education through four papers. The first paper, serving as a historical and theoretical understanding of art education in Asia, will establish the social and cultural contexts in which Asia shares similar historical contexts in developing cultural understandings and creativity in contemporary education. The second and third papers will be based on the perspectives of national education and national identity, exploring the respective issues of sociological influences on music learning and students’ in-class and extracurricular music activities. From creative practices and research, the last paper will report and discuss the positive values of arts education and creativity in conducting art knowledge transfer activities for better education. The panel will conclude that transforming art, music, education, and society requires teachers’ commitment and professional development, thereby raising the accessibility and visibility of arts learning in school education.
S3, English, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA LT3
Policy Discourse on Changing Student Demography and Changing Educational Policies from K–12 in Hong Kong: Outcomes and Dilemmas
Educational policy is a mirror of the socio-economic fabric of a society. Post-colonial Hong Kong has witnessed the rapid change of student populations across the K–12 sectors. Sharing the characteristics of most modern societies, Hong Kong schools are experiencing a process of declining student populations together with growing numbers of students from diverse cultural and/or with special learning needs. While Hong Kong is predominantly a market-driven meritocratic education system, it also aspires to celebrate student diversity. Faced by the tension between these competing aspirations in policy and development, issues of equity and quality in education have come under close scrutiny. In this symposium, the panels will examine the policy outcomes resulting from recent related reforms in the public K–12 education from multiple perspectives. The first paper inspects the perceptions of parents and school stakeholders towards the early integration policy for children with disabilities in kindergartens-cum-child-care-centres. The second paper investigates the impacts of the decline of cross-boundary students and the implementation of the Free Quality Kindergarten Education Scheme on the kindergartens located in the Hong Kong-mainland boundary area. The third paper offers a critical review of the Voluntary Optimisation of Class Structure Scheme implemented in secondary schools and its impacts on principal leadership and teacher job satisfaction. The fourth paper discusses the perspective of the Chinese immigrant and ethnic minority South Asian senior secondary students on their access to post-secondary education and associated life chances.
S4, English, 15:45 – 17:15, YIA 505
Language Games, Invisible Cloaks, and Power Struggles — The Backstage of Moralizing Society Through Equity and Integration in Education
Doubtlessly, topics related to the labels of inclusive education, equity among diversity, or non-discriminatory access to educational opportunities have become globally dominant in recent policy, and research has sought to do the best to implement these cornerstones of visions of better, that is, more moral and more equitable societies (Powell, 2018). Even if the machinery of the respective research all over the globe is running at considerable speed helping policy (for instance UNESCO, 1994, 2006, 2009) to put their visions into practice, some aspects remain which are ignored but deserve a deeper look on what we actually are confronted within this discourse around these labels (Powell, Edelstein, & Blanck, 2018). First of all, little is known about the way this discourse was formed and has become globally dominant in education policy in the last decades of the 20th century, how the ideological “architecture” of the discourse and its pertinent preference for particular sources is in itself a result of complex language and power games of the participants (Rauh, 2016). In other words, the power struggles and the strategic use of “arguments” as means of advocating the own interests between the different stakeholders in education policy remains still a blank sheet. Secondly, the use of particular concepts as well as the noticeable pastoral ardor of conviction have hardly been addressed (Ahrbeck, 2016). The concepts representing the dominant discourse are highly moralized and the educationalized will to improve society through various educational concepts is obviously strong and seems to be without alternatives.
Drawing historical and current examples from Europe, Hong Kong, and Mainland China, our panel aims to take a step back from research as agency and address the issue — the discourse and its practices of implementation — from an analytical side, more precisely as linguistic analysis. It addresses how agency has emerged as a result of performative acts such as decrees from the stakeholders, exuberant publications or simply the use of “big words” such as “special needs”, “inclusion”, “equity”, “access”, obviously feeding the activist veins of agency in both, policy and research, dedicated to support educational practice to fulfill the almost impossible actual content of the concepts and ideas in the normal educational everyday life, its overburdening of the teachers, often resulting in opposite realities than the envisaged ones (Göppel, 2016). Thereby we follow the linguist Ferdinand de Saussure’s crucial distinction between langue and parole (de Saussure, 2006) providing us with an analytic tool to excavate the normative claims behind the “big words” (for instance Tröhler, in press ). We believe that this critical linguistic approach of analysis opens creatively historical and empirical insights including reflexive qualities within a globalized discourse.
S5, English, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA LT3
Early Intervention for Young Children with Developmental Needs
“The earlier, the better” presents the central beliefs that guide the services to young children with special needs. To respond to the rising numbers of young children with developmental needs, the pilot scheme of on-site pre-school rehabilitation services began in Hong Kong kindergartens and child care centres in 2015. Professional therapists and special education teachers provide individual intervention to the children. Home and school are immediate settings where children spend most of their time. A supportive context and collaboration of members in these contexts are beneficial to children. Training services are thus provided to teachers and parents. The symposium includes four papers that: (a) compare early intervention services in Australia, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the United States; (b) examine the attitudes of teachers towards mainstreaming in kindergartens participating in the scheme; (c) explore how family characteristics influence the well-being and parenting self-efficacy of parents with young children with disabilities; and (d) investigate how evidence-based practices in occupational therapy services for young children with developmental disabilities.
S6, English, 10:45 – 12:15, YIA 505
Harnessing the Power of Feedback
Based on over 800 meta-analytic studies, Hattie’s (2009) synthesis identified feedback as one of the top ten (out of 138) influences on students’ learning outcomes (d = 0.79). However, as Hattie and Gan (2011) remark, “it seems we know much about the power of feedback, but too little about how to harness this power and make it work more effectively in the classroom” (pp. 249–250). To address this important question, this symposium brings together three feedback researchers to share their research and insights on how feedback can be made more effective through a focus on (1) students’ feedback orientations; (2) the role of peers, and (3) how teachers can think outside the box to challenge conventional feedback practices.
S7, Putonghua, 13:30 – 15:00, YIA 505
拆解鑑賞學習鷹架四步驟：描述、分析、詮釋、判斷，促發運動聯想以「詮釋」自己與他者敘說之間的描述，視礦坑為舞台的新意義 ── 學生頌。再詮釋畫家洪瑞麟之臺灣美術主體性的「鄉土文化運動」為何？替代學生缺乏礦工勞動實體經驗，以自主想像形構所謂「學生觀點」之「本土、鄉土」意識何為？群組交互伸展對話下所泌出的存在感，即興的「自我演出」、「他者互動」學生做出多元判斷、因差異而產生詰問旁白對話（畫）錄。